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M101XMM - M 101 XMM-Newton X-Ray Point Source Catalog

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Overview

The authors describe the global X-ray properties of the point source population in the grand-design spiral galaxy M 101, as seen with XMM-Newton. 108 X-ray sources are detected within the D25 ellipse (~28.8 arcminutes diameter) of M101, of which ~24 are estimated to be background galaxies. Multiwavelength cross-correlations show that 20 sources are coincident with H II regions and/or supernova remnants (SNRs), seven have identified/candidate background galaxy counterparts, six are coincident with foreground stars and one has a radio counterpart.

While the spectral and timing properties of the brightest sources were presented by Jenkins et al. (2004, MNRAS, 349, 404: Paper I), in the present analysis the authors apply an X-ray colour classification scheme to split the entire source population into different types, i.e. X-ray binaries (XRBs), SNRs, absorbed sources, background sources and supersoft sources (SSSs). Approximately 60% of the population can be classified as XRBs, although there is source contamination from background active galactic nuclei (AGN) in this category as they have similar spectral shapes in the X-ray regime. 15 sources have X-ray colours consistent with SNRs, three of which correlate with known SNR/HII radio sources. Another two are promising new candidates for SNRs, one is unidentified, and the remainder are a mixture of foreground stars, bright soft XRBs and AGN candidates. The authors also detect 14 candidate SSSs, with significant detections in the softest X-ray band (0.3 - 1 keV) only. 16 sources display short-term variability during the XMM-Newton observation, twelve of which fall into the XRB category, giving additional evidence of their accreting nature. Using archival Chandra and ROSAT High Resolution Imager data, the authors find that ~40% of the XMM sources show long-term variability over a baseline of up to ~10 yr, and eight sources display potential transient behaviour between observations. Sources with significant flux variations between the XMM and Chandra observations show a mixture of softening and hardening with increasing luminosity. The spectral and timing properties of the sources coincident with M 101 confirm that its X-ray source population is dominated by accreting XRBs.

The authors cross-correlated the XMM-Newton source list with previous X-ray observations of M 101. For the Chandra observations detailed in Section 2 of the reference paper, they matched on-axis sources (whose positions are generally accurate to ~1 arcsec) to within the XMM-Newton 3-sigma errors. For off-axis sources, the decreasing Chandra positional accuracy to ~2 arcsec was also taken into account. However, given the large PSF of XMM-Newton (~6 arcsec FWHM), they also checked for any contamination from additional fainter sources detected only by Chandra by searching for sources that lie within 15 arcsec of the XMM-Newton source positions (this corresponds to the on-axis 68% energy cut-out radius used in emldetect). In total, 71 XMM-Newton sources were unambiguously matched to single Chandra sources within the 3-sigma errors, whereas the nuclear source is resolved into two sources by Chandra. These matches are listed in this table, as are additional sources matching to within 15 arcsec. For completeness, both the CXOU designations of Kilgard et al. (2005, ApJS, 159, 214) and equivalent source source numbers from Pence et al. (2001, ApJ, 561, 189) are given.

M 101 was observed with XMM-Newton for 42.8 ks on 2002 June 4 (Obs ID 0104260101). The EPIC MOS-1, MOS-2 and PN cameras were operated with medium filters in the 'Prime Full Window' mode, which utilizes the full ~ 30-arcmin field of view of XMM-Newton, covering the entire D25 ellipse of M101.


Catalog Bibcode

2005MNRAS.357..401J

References

An XMM-Newton view of M101 - II. Global X-ray source properties.
    Jenkins L.P., Roberts T.P., Warwick R.S., Kilgard R.E., Ward M.J.
   <Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 357, 401-419 (2005)>
   =2005MNRAS.357..401J

Provenance

This table was created by the HEASARC in October 2011 based on CDS Catalog J/MNRAS/357/401 files table1.dat and table2.dat.

Parameters

Source_Number
A unique source number for each X-ray source in the catalog in order of increasing J2000.0 Right Ascension.

Alt_Name
The alternative catalog-based source designation rcommended by the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects using the '[JRW2005b]' prefix for Jenkins, Roberts, Warwick 2005 and the source number, e.g. '[JRW2005b] 1'.

Name
The primary J2000.0 position-based source designation for (unregistered) XMM-Newton sources, viz. 'XMMU JHHMMss.s+DDMMSS'.

RA
The Right Ascension of the X-ray source in the selected equinox. This was obtained from the J2000.0 equatorial-based name of the source which is given to a precision of 0.1 seconds of time.

Dec
The Declination of the X-ray source in the selected equinox. This was obtained from the J2000.0 equatorial-based name of the source which is given to a precision of 1 arcsecond.

LII
The Galactic Longitude of the X-ray source.

BII
The Galactic Latitude of the X-ray source.

Error_Radius
The 1-sigma positional uncertainty of the X-ray source, including both the statistical error and a 1.5-arcsec systematic error added in quadrature, in arcseconds.

PN_SB_Rate
The X-ray source count rate in the soft (0.3 - 1 keV) band for the PN camera, in ct/s.

PN_SB_Rate_Error
The uncertainty in the corresponding count rate, in ct/s.

PN_SB_Rate_Flag
This flag parameter is set to 'S' to indicate that the corresponding count rate is a significant (> 4 sigma) detection.

PN_MB_Rate
The X-ray source count rate in the medium (1 - 2 keV) band for the PN camera, in ct/s.

PN_MB_Rate_Error
The uncertainty in the corresponding count rate, in ct/s.

PN_MB_Rate_Flag
This flag parameter is set to 'S' to indicate that the corresponding count rate is a significant (> 4 sigma) detection.

PN_HB_Rate
The X-ray source count rate in the hard (2 - 6 keV) band for the PN camera, in ct/s.

PN_HB_Rate_Error
The uncertainty in the corresponding count rate, in ct/s.

PN_HB_Rate_Flag
This flag parameter is set to 'S' to indicate that the corresponding count rate is a significant (> 4 sigma) detection.

Mos_SB_Rate
The X-ray source count rate in the soft (0.3 - 1.0 keV) band for the MOS camera, in ct/s.

Mos_SB_Rate_Error
The uncertainty in the corresponding count rate, in ct/s.

Mos_SB_Rate_Flag
This flag parameter is set to 'S' to indicate that the corresponding count rate is a significant (> 4 sigma) detection.

Mos_MB_Rate
The X-ray source count rate in the medium (1 - 2 keV) band for the MOS camera, in ct/s.

Mos_MB_Rate_Error
The uncertainty in the corresponding count rate, in ct/s.

Mos_MB_Rate_Flag
This flag parameter is set to 'S' to indicate that the corresponding count rate is a significant (> 4 sigma) detection.

Mos_HB_Rate
The X-ray source count rate in the hard (2 - 6 keV) band for the MOS camera, in ct/s.

Mos_HB_Rate_Error
The uncertainty in the corresponding count rate, in ct/s.

Mos_HB_Rate_Flag
This flag parameter is set to 'S' to indicate that the corresponding count rate is a significant (> 4 sigma) detection.

Flux
The X-ray source flux in the broad (0.3 - 6 keV) band, in erg cm-2 s-1. The broad-band fluxes were obtained by summing the fluxes over the three sub-bands and then taking the weighted mean of the individual PN and MOS measurements. The faintest source detected has a flux of 3.1E-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.3 - 6 keV range, and the brightest source (#46/XMM-1) has a flux of 4.2E-13 erg cm-2 s-1.

Flux_Error
The uncertainty in the broad-band (0.3 - 6 keV) X-ray flux, in erg cm-2 s-1.

Lx
The X-Ray source luminosity in the broad (0.3 - 6 keV) band, using the corresponding flux and assuming a distance to M 101 of 7.2 Mpc, in erg s-1. The range of fluxes observed correspond to a luminosity range of 1.9E37 to 2.6E39 erg s-1 if the sources are at the distance of M 101.

Lx_Error
The uncertainty in the broad-band (0.3 - 6 keV) X-ray luminosity, in erg s-1.

HR_1
The 'soft' hardness ratio 1, HR1 = (M-S)/(H+M+S), where H, M and S are the hard-, medium- and soft-band count rates of the X-ray source

HR_1_Error
The uncertainty in the corresponding hardness ratio.

HR_2
The 'hard' hardness ratio 1, HR2 = (H-M)/(H+M+S), where H, M and S are the hard-, medium- and soft-band count rates of the X-ray source

HR_2_Error
The uncertainty in the corresponding hardness ratio.

Var_Flag
This flag parameter is set to set to 'S' and/or 'L', to indicate X-ray source variability on short (S) and/or long (L) timescales. Thus, 'S' sources were found to be variable within the 42.8 ks XMM-Newton observation, while 'L' sources were found to be variable when the XMM-Newton flux was compared with that measured in a Chandra observations 2 years prior to the XMM-Newton observtaion and/or in 4 archival ROSAT HRI observations.

Source_Flag
This flag parameter is set to 'A' to indicate that there are additional matching Chandra sources outside the combined XMM-Newton and Chandra 3-sigma positional error but within 15 arcseconds of the XMM-Newton position. The HEASARC has also flagged source number 51 corresponding to the (binary) nuclear sourec of M 101 with 'A' although in this case both of the Chandra sources lie within the combined XMM-Newton and Chandra 3-sigma positional uncertainty.

ROSAT_ID
The identification number of the ROSAT source(s) which are coincident with the XMM-Newton source position to within the combined 3-sigma XMM-Newton and ROSAT positional errors, where H refers to HRI sources and P to PSPC sources, both from Wang et al. (1999, ApJ, 523, 121). These sources are listed as '[WIP99] HNN' or '[WIP99] PNN' in Simbad.

Pence_Id_1
The primary matching Chandra source identification from Pence et al. (2001, ApJ, 561, 189) which lies within the combined XMM-Newton and Chandra 3-sigma positional uncertainty of the XMM-Newton source position.

Pence_Id_2
A second matching Chandra source identification from Pence et al. (2001, ApJ, 561, 189) which lies outside the combined XMM-Newton and Chandra 3-sigma positional error but within 15 arcseconds of the XMM-Newton position.

Pence_Id_3
A third matching Chandra source identification from Pence et al. (2001, ApJ, 561, 189) which lies outside the combined XMM-Newton and Chandra 3-sigma positional error but within 15 arcseconds of the XMM-Newton position.

Kilgard_Name_1
The primary matching Chandra source identification from Kilgard et al. (2005, ApJS, 159, 214) which lies within the combined XMM-Newton and Chandra 3-sigma positional uncertainty of the XMM-Newton source position.

Kilgard_Name_2
A second matching Chandra source identification from Kilgard et al. (2005, ApJS, 159, 214) which lies outside the combined XMM-Newton and Chandra 3-sigma positional error but within 15 arcseconds of the XMM-Newton position.

Kilgard_Name_3
A third matching Chandra source identification from Kilgard et al. (2005, ApJS, 159, 214) which lies outside the combined XMM-Newton and Chandra 3-sigma positional error but within 15 arcseconds of the XMM-Newton position.

Alt_Names_1
Alternative source designations for the primary matching Chandra and/or ROSAT source, using the following abbreviations and references:

             NGC denotes giant H II regions e.g. Williams & Chu
                 (1995ApJ...439..132W), [WC95] in Simbad
       Catalogue references:
           [GSC] Guide Star Catalogue
          [AG79] Allen & Goss (1979A&AS...36..135A)
        [CasHII] Sanduleak & Pesch (1987ApJS...63..809S)
         [BKS96] Bresolin, Kennicutt & Stetson (1996AJ....112.1009B)
        [CC2002] Cedres & Cepa (2002, Cat. <J/A+A/391/809>)
       [CCG2002] Chen et al. (2002AJ....123.2462C)
       [ECB2002] Eck et al. (2002ApJ...573..306E)
           [H69] Hodge (1969ApJS...18...73H)
          [HGGK] Hodge et al. (1990, Cat. <J/ApJS/73/661>)
          [HK83] Hodge & Kennicutt (1983AJ.....88..296H)
         [IGA75] Israel, Goss & Allen (1975A&A....40..421I), [I75] in Simbad
       [LCC2001] Lai et al.  (2001ApJ...547..754L)
            [MF] Matonick & Fesen (1997ApJS..112...49M), [MF97] in Simbad
       [PMC2001] Page et al.  (2001MNRAS.325..575)
           [S71] Searle (1971ApJ...168..327S)
           [TFR] Trinchieri et al.  (1990ApJ...356..110T), [TFR90] in Simbad
           [WIP] Wang et al.  (1999ApJ...523..121W), [WIP99] in Simbad
  

Alt_Names_2
Alternative source designations for the secondary matching Chandra and/or ROSAT source, using the same abbreviations and references as for the alt_names_1 parameter (q.v.).


Contact Person

Questions regarding the M101XMM database table can be addressed to the HEASARC User Hotline.

Page Author: Browse Software Development Team
Last Modified: 5-Mar-2012