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M33XMMXRAY - XMM-Newton M33 Survey Catalog

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Overview

This table contains a source catalog based om XMM-Newton observations of the nearby galaxy M 33. In an XMM-Newton raster observation of this bright Local Group spiral galaxy, the authors studied the population of X-ray sources (X-ray binaries, supernova remnants) down to a 0.2-4.5 keV luminosity limit of 10^35 erg/s, more than a factor of 10 deeper than earlier ROSAT observations. European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) hardness ratios and optical and radio information are used to distinguish between different source classes. The survey detects 408 sources in an area of 0.80 square degree. The authors correlated these newly detected X-ray sources with earlier M 33 X-ray catalogs and information from optical, infra-red and radio wavelengths. As M 33 sources, theydetect 21 supernova remnants (SNR) and 23 SNR candidates, 5 super-soft sources and 2 X-ray binaries (XRBs). There are 267 sources classified as hard, which may either be XRBs or Crab-like SNRs in M 33 or background AGN. The 44 confirmed and candidate SNRs more than double the number of X-ray detected SNRs in M 33. 16 of these are proposed as SNR candidates from the X-ray data for the first time. On the other hand, there are several sources not connected to M 33: five foreground stars, 30 foreground star candidates, 12 active galactic nucleus candidates, one background galaxy and one background galaxy candidate. Extrapolating from deep field observations, 175 to 210 background sources are expected in this field. This indicates that about half of the sources which were detected are actually within M 33.

Catalog Bibcode

2004A&A...426...11P

References

XMM-Newton survey of the Local Group galaxy M 33.
    Pietsch W., Misanovic Z., Haberl F., Hatzidimitriou D., Ehle M.,
    Trinchieri G.
    <Astron. Astrophys. 426, 11  (2004)>
    =2004A&A...426...11P        (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)

Provenance

This table was created by the HEASARC in October 2004 based on CDS table J/A+A/426/11/table3.dat

Parameters

Source_Number
A running source number for the X-ray source in order of increasing J2000 Right Ascension.

Name
The recommended designation for sources in this catalog, using the prefix '[PMH2004] ' and the source number.

RA
The Right Ascension of the X-ray source in the selected equinox. This was given in J2000 coordinates and to a precision of 0.01 seconds of time in the originating table.

Dec
The Declination of the X-ray source in the selected equinox. This was given in J2000 coordinates and to a precision of 0.1 arcseconds of time in the originating table.

LII
The Galactic Longitude of the X-ray source.

BII
The Galactic Latitude of the X-ray source.

Error_Radius
The 1-sigma statistical error in the position, in arcseconds. This does not include the intrinsic systematic errors which, according to the Users Guide of the 1XMM XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalog (XMMSSC), amount to 1.5 arcseconds and should be added in quadrature to the statistical error to get the total positional uncertainty.

Det_ML
The detection likelihood for the X-ray source based on the combined EPIC PN, MOS1, and MOS2 data.

Count_Rate
The combined EPIC PN, MOS1 and MOS2 count rate, in counts per second, in the XID band corresponding to the 0.2-4.5 keV energy range.

Count_Rate_Error
The error in the combined EPIC count rate, in counts per second.

Flux
The X-ray flux in the 0.2-4.5 keV energy range based on the combined EPIC PN, MOS1, and MOS2 data, in erg/s/cm^2.

Flux_Error
The error in the combined EPIC flux, in erg/s/cm^2.

HR1
The Hardness Ratio HR1 of the combined EPIC X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

HR1_Error
The error in the combined EPIC Hardness Ratio HR1. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

HR2
The Hardness Ratio HR2 of the combined EPIC X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

HR2_Error
The error in the combined EPIC Hardness Ratio HR2. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

HR3
The Hardness Ratio HR3 of the combined EPIC X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

HR3_Error
The error in the combined EPIC Hardness Ratio HR3. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

HR4
The Hardness Ratio HR4 of the combined EPIC X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

HR4_Error
The error in the combined EPIC Hardness Ratio HR4. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

Det_Instruments
Codes indicating which EPIC instruments contributed to the X-ray source detection, where the first character is for the EPIC PN, the second is for the EPIC MOS1, and the third is for the EPIC MOS2: a value of 'T' indicates that the X-ray source is in the field of view (FOV) of the instrument, while a value of 'F' indicates otherwise. There are only 9 sources at the periphery of the FOV for which only some of the EPIC instruments contribute.

PN_Exposure
The exposure of the EPIC PN instrument, in seconds. This parameter was given with a precision of 0.1 kiloseconds in the original, as-published table.

PN_Det_ML
The detection likelihood for the X-ray source based on the EPIC PN data.

PN_Count_Rate
The EPIC PN count rate, in counts per second, in the XID band corresponding to the 0.2-4.5 keV energy range.

PN_Count_Rate_Error
The error in the EPIC PN count rate, in counts per second.

PN_Flux
The X-ray flux in the 0.2-4.5 keV energy range based on the EPIC PN data, in erg/s/cm^2.

PN_Flux_Error
The error in the EPIC PN flux, in erg/s/cm^2.

PN_HR1
The Hardness Ratio HR1 of the EPIC PN X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

PN_HR1_Error
The error in the EPIC PN Hardness Ratio HR1. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

PN_HR2
The Hardness Ratio HR2 of the EPIC PN X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

PN_HR2_Error
The error in the EPIC PN Hardness Ratio HR2. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

PN_HR3
The Hardness Ratio HR3 of the EPIC PN X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

PN_HR3_Error
The error in the EPIC PN Hardness Ratio HR3. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

PN_HR4
The Hardness Ratio HR4 of the EPIC PN X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

PN_HR4_Error
The error in the EPIC PN Hardness Ratio HR4. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

M1_Exposure
The exposure of the EPIC MOS1 instrument, in seconds. This parameter was given with a precision of 0.1 kiloseconds in the original, as-published table.

M1_Det_ML
The detection likelihood for the X-ray source based on the EPIC MOS1 data.

M1_Count_Rate
The EPIC MOS1 count rate, in counts per second, in the XID band corresponding to the 0.2-4.5 keV energy range.

M1_Count_Rate_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS1 count rate, in counts per second.

M1_Flux
The X-ray flux in the 0.2-4.5 keV energy range based on the EPIC MOS1 data, in erg/s/cm^2.

M1_Flux_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS1 flux, in erg/s/cm^2.

M1_HR1
The Hardness Ratio HR1 of the EPIC MOS1 X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

M1_HR1_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS1 Hardness Ratio HR1. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

M1_HR2
The Hardness Ratio HR2 of the EPIC MOS1 X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

M1_HR2_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS1 Hardness Ratio HR2. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

M1_HR3
The Hardness Ratio HR3 of the EPIC MOS1 X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

M1_HR3_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS1 Hardness Ratio HR3. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

M1_HR4
The Hardness Ratio HR4 of the EPIC MOS1 X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  
Hardness Ratios are calculated only for sources for which at least one of the two bands count rates has a significance greater than 2-sigma.

M1_HR4_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS1 Hardness Ratio HR4. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

M2_Exposure
The exposure of the EPIC MOS2 instrument, in seconds. This parameter was given with a precision of 0.1 kiloseconds in the original, as-published table.

M2_Det_ML
The detection likelihood for the X-ray source based on the EPIC MOS2 data.

M2_Count_Rate
The EPIC MOS2 count rate, in counts per second, in the XID band corresponding to the 0.2-4.5 keV energy range.

M2_Count_Rate_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS2 count rate, in counts per second.

M2_Flux
The X-ray flux in the 0.2-4.5 keV energy range based on the EPIC MOS2 data, in erg/s/cm^2.

M2_Flux_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS2 flux, in erg/s/cm^2.

M2_HR1
The Hardness Ratio HR1 of the EPIC MOS2 X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  

M2_HR1_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS2 Hardness Ratio HR1. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

M2_HR2
The Hardness Ratio HR2 of the EPIC MOS2 X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  

M2_HR2_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS2 Hardness Ratio HR2. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

M2_HR3
The Hardness Ratio HR3 of the EPIC MOS2 X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  

M2_HR3_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS2 Hardness Ratio HR3. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

M2_HR4
The Hardness Ratio HR4 of the EPIC MOS2 X-ray source. The hardness ratios are defined by the relation HRi=(R(i+1)-R(i))/(R(i+1)+R(i)) where Ri are the count rates in the energy bands 1 to 5, and the bands correspond to the following energies:

             band 1 = 0.2-0.5keV,
             band 2 = 0.5-1.0keV,
             band 3 = 1.0-2.0keV,
             band 4 = 2.0-4.5keV,
             band 5 = 4.5-12keV
  

M2_HR4_Error
The error in the EPIC MOS2 Hardness Ratio HR4. Errors are the properly combined statistical errors in each band and can extend beyond the range of allowed values of hardness ratios of -1.0 to +1.0.

Alt_Xray_ID
Cross-correlation information on previously identified X-Ray sources in the M 33 field, with the following codes for references:

             Code : Reference

             X-n  : Long et al., 1981ApJ...246L..61L;
                    Trinchieri et al., 1988ApJ...329.1037T
             SBn  : Schulman & Bregman, 1995ApJ...441..568S
             LCBn : Long et al., 1996ApJ...466..750L
             DCL97: Dubus et al., 1997ApJ...490L..47D
             DCL99: Dubus et al., 1999MNRAS.302..731D
             HPn  : Haberl & Pietsch, 2001A&A...373..438H
  

USNO_Cat_Name
The name of the (optically) brightest USNO-B1.0 (CDS Catalog <I/284>) source within the search area centered on the X-ray source having a radius of 3 times the combined statistical and systematic positional errors for the source.

Number_USNO_Corr
The number of USNO-B1.0 objects found within the search area of the X-ray source.

Offset_USNO_Xmm
The angular offset from the USNO-B1.0 Source to the X-ray source, in arcseconds.

B2_Mag
The B2 magnitude of the brightest USNO-B1.0 source.

R2_Mag
The R2 magnitude of the brightest USNO-B1.0 source.

I2_Mag
The I2 magnitude of the brightest USNO-B1.0 source.

Log_Fx_Fopt
The logarithm of the ratio of the Xray and optical fluxes, fX/fopt. To improve on the reliability of identifications, the authors used the B2 and R2 magnitudes to calculate this ratio, using the relation log fx/fopt = log fx + (b2_mag + r2_mag)/(2x2.5) + 5.37, following Maccacaro et al (1988, ApJ, 326, 680.

Source_Type
The catalogued X-Ray sources are identified or classified based on their properties in X-rays (such as hardness ratios, variability, extent) and of the correlated objects in other wavelength regimes. The criteria used are summarized in Table 5 of the published paper containing the catalog. A source is counted as identified if there are at least two criteria to secure the identification, otherwise it is only considered as `classified', as indicated by the angle brackets. Many foreground stars, SSSs and SNRs were classified or identified. However, besides a few clearly identified XRBs and AGN, and SNR candidates with known positions at other wavelengths, the authors had no clear hardness ratio criteria to select XRBs, Crab-like SNR or AGN. These latter are all `hard' sources, and the authors therefore introduced a class called <hard> for source with a value of HR2 - HR2_error > -0.2.

The following classifications were used:

      Classification     Meaning

             fg Star   = foreground star
             <fg Star> = foreground star candidate
             AGN       = active galactic nucleus
             <AGN>     = AGN candidate
             GAL       = galaxy
             <GAL>     = galaxy candidate
             SSS       = supersoft source in M 33
             <SSS>     = supersoft source candidate in M 33
             SNR       = supernova remnant in M 33
             <SNR>     = supernova remnant candidate in M 33
             XRB       = X-ray binary in M 33
             <hard>    = HR2-HR2_error > -0.2 or only HR3 and HR4 defined,
                         and no other classification
  

Other_Remarks
This parameter contains some additional remarks about (some of) the X-ray sources, such as more details about the optical identification. The following references are mentioned:

           Acronym     : Reference

             SIM       : SIMBAD Database
             NED       : NASA Extragalactic Database
             NVSS      : Condon et al., 1998AJ....115.1693C
             CS82      : Christian & Schommer, 1982ApJ...253L..13C
             [MC83]25  : Massey & Conti, 1983ApJ...273..576M
             IFM*      : Ivanov et al., 1993ApJS...89...85I
             GKLn      : Gordon et al., 1998ApJS..117...89G
             GDKn      : Gordon et al., 1999ApJS..120..247G
             IV74      : Israel & van der Kruit, 1974A&A....32..363I
             VBW78     : von Kap-Herr et al., 1978A&A....62...51V
             M98       : Massey, 1998ApJ...501..153M
             MCM2001   : Magrini et al., 2001A&A...367..498M
             MBH96     : Massey et al., 1996ApJ...469..629M
             PMM2004   : Pietsch et al., 2004A&A...413..879P
             GM94      : Giovagnoli & Mould, 1994PASP..106..376G
             FSZ       : Fabrika et al., 1997BSAO...43..133F
             D33       : Macri et al., 2001AJ....121..870M;
                         Mochejska et al., 2001AJ....121.2032M
             RW93      : Regan & Wilson, 1993AJ....105..499R
             VHK       : Hubble, 1926ApJ....63..236H
             CGC97     : Crampton et al., 1997AJ....114.2353C
             BCLMP     : Boulesteix et al., 1974A&A....37...33B
  

Class
A (crude) HEASARC Browse classification for the object, based only on the information in the source_type field (i.e., any more detailed source information in the other_remarks field was not considered for this).


Contact Person

Questions regarding the M33XMMXRAY database table can be addressed to the HEASARC User Hotline.

Page Author: Browse Software Development Team
Last Modified: 8-Aug-2006