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PACOFSCAT - Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) Project Faint Sample Catalog

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Overview

The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project collected data between 4.5 and 40 GHz for 482 sources selected within the Australia Telescope 20-GHz (AT20G) catalog and observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Observations were done almost simultaneously with the Planck satellite, in the period between 2009 July and 2010 August. In this paper, the authors present and discuss the data for the complete sample of 159 sources with AT20G flux densities > 200 mJy in the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) region. The Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) contains 57 of their sources. A comparison between the PACO catalog and the ERCSC confirms that the reliability of the latter is better than 95%. The missing ERCSC sources are typically associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Milky Way or are otherwise extended. The spectral analysis of the PACO faint catalog shows a spectral steepening of the sources at high frequencies, confirming the results obtained from the PACO bright sample (the HEASARC PACOBSCAT table). A comparison with AT20G measurements, carried out, on average, a few years earlier, has demonstrated that, on these time-scales, these sources show a rather high variability with an rms amplitude of approximately 40% at 20 GHz. The source spectral properties are found not to vary substantially with flux density, except for an increase in the fraction of steep spectrum sources at fainter flux densities. These data also allow the authors to extend by a factor of ~ 5 downwards in flux density the source counts at ~ 33 and ~ 40 GHz obtained from the ERCSC. This allows the authors to substantially improve their control on the contribution of unresolved extragalactic sources to the power spectrum of small-scale fluctuations in cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps.

The PACO faint sample, presented in this paper, is made up of 159 sources with 20-GHz flux densities >= 200 mJy in the SEP region (ecliptic latitude < -75 degrees) and with 3h < RA < 9h, Dec. < -30 degrees. Near the Ecliptic Poles, Planck's scan circles intersect. Therefore, the area is covered many times, and Planck's sensitivity is maximal in these regions. A full description of the PACO project and of its main goals is given in Massardi et al. (2011, MNRAS, 415, 1597). The aims specific to the PACO faint sample are as follows: (i) Extend to fainter flux densities the characterization of radio source spectra from 4.5 GHz to the Planck frequency range; (ii) Extend the determination of source counts at ~ 33 and ~ 40 GHz obtained from the analysis of the ERCSC downwards in flux density by a factor of ~ 5. Going down in flux density is important to control the contamination of CMB maps by faint radio sources.

This table contains the catalog of 674 observations of 152 of the 159 sources that comprise the 'faint PACO sample'. Thus, each row in this table corresponds to a specific observation of a source, and there can be several rows for any source, corresponding to different observations. The ATCA observations were made in 6 2-GHz wide observing bands: 4732 - 6780 MHz, 8232 - 10280 MHz, 17232 - 19280 MHz, 23232 - 25280 MHz, 32232 - 34280 MHz and 38232 - 40280 MHz. In order to properly define the detailed source spectral behavior, the authors have split each 2-GHz band into 4 x 512 MHz sub-bands, and calibrated each sub-band independently. Thus, for each observation, the flux density at 24 frequencies is given. The frequency identifier in the flux density appears (at least to this HEASARC scientist) to be the lower frequency of the sub-band rather than its central frequency.

In order to provide the easiest way to extrapolate the observed counts or model predictions from one frequency to another, the authors have modeled the observed source spectra. As their observations covered a wide frequency range from 4.5 to 40 GHz over which a single power law is not enough to describe the spectral behavior of the sources, they studied the spectra of the 174 point-like sources in this sample by fitting the observed data with a double power law of the form Snu = S0/[(nu/nu0)-a + (nu/nu0)-b], where nu is the frequency, Snu is the flux density in Jy, and S0, nu0, a and b are free parameters. The authors considered only those sources for which they had at least four data points for each of the 2 x 2 GHz bands considered. When observations at more than one epoch were available, the authors chose the one with the greatest number of data points. Full details of the fitting procedure are given in Section 3.1 of Massardi et al. (2011, MNRAS, 415, 1597) and Section 4 of the reference paper.


Catalog Bibcode

2011MNRAS.416..559B

References

The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations project: the faint sample

   Bonavera L.,  Massardi M.,  Bonaldi A., Gonzalez-Nuevo J., de Zotti G.,
   Ekers R.D.
  <Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 416, pp. 559-566 (2011)>
   =2011MNRAS.416..559B

Provenance

This table was created by the HEASARC in January 2014 based on the machine-readable version of the Paco faint catalog from the reference paper which was obtained from the CDS (their catalog J/MNRAS/416/559 file catalog.dat).

Parameters

Name
The AT20G source designation based on the J2000.0 equatorial source coordinates, e.g., 'AT20G JHHMMSS+DDMMSS'.

RA
The Right Ascension of the radio source in the selected equinox. This was given in J2000.0 decimal hours to a precision of 10-7 hours in the original table.

Dec
The Declination of the radio source in the selected equinox. This was given in J2000.0 decimal hours to a precision of 10-7 degrees in the original table.

LII
The Galactic Longitude of the radio source.

BII
The Galactic Latitude of the radio source.

Time
The epoch of the ATCA observation given to the nearest day.

Planck_Flag
This flag is set to 's' to indicate that the epoch of the observation was within 10 days of the Planck observations of this source. The epochs before 2010 February have to be compared with the first Planck survey, whereas the following epochs should be compared with the second Planck survey.

Extended_Flag
This flag is set to 'e' to indicate that this is an extended source. Of the original 159 sources comprising in the PACO faint sample which were observed at least once at all the frequencies, bad weather conditions affect all the runs for five sources (J034205-370320, J040848-750720, J052006-454745, J062620-534151 and J064118-355433) and it was not possible to repeat the observations. All of them are extended. Moreover, the results of mapping and mosaicking in total intensity and polarization the core and the western lobe of Pictor A, namely J051926-454554 and J051949-454643, respectively, were to be be presented in a subsequent paper; these two sources were not included in this table. Therefore, the PACO faint catalog contains flux density measurements of 152 sources.

The classification of sources as point-like or extended was mostly taken from the AT20G catalog and integrated at 7 mm by the analysis of the source-phase closure and ratio between the data collected with long baselines and those collected with the whole array. For extended sources, the authors used the scalar flux density on the shortest baseline which, however, is only a lower limit to the real flux density. We have in total nine extended sources in the PACO faint sample, only four of which were classified as extended in the AT20G catalog. There are 20 observations of these 9 extended sources listed in this table.

Flux_4732_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 4732 MHz.

Flux_4732_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 4732 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_5244_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 5244 MHz.

Flux_5244_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 5244 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_5756_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 5756 MHz

Flux_5756_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 5756 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_6268_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 6268 MHz

Flux_6268_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 6268 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_8232_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 8232 MHz

Flux_8232_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 8232 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_8744_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 8744 MHz.

Flux_8744_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 8744 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_9256_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 9256 MHz.

Flux_9256_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 9256 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_9768_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 9768 MHz.

Flux_9768_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 9768 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_17232_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 17232 MHz.

Flux_17232_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 17232 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_17744_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 17744 MHz.

Flux_17744_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 17744 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_18256_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 18256 MHz.

Flux_18256_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 18256 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_18768_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 18768 MHz.

Flux_18768_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 18768 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_23232_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 23232 MHz.

Flux_23232_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 23232 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_23744_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 23744 MHz.

Flux_23744_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 23744 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_24256_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 24256 MHz.

Flux_24256_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 24256 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_24768_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 24768 MHz.

Flux_24768_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 24768 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_32232_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 32232 MHz.

Flux_32232_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 32232 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_32744_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 32744 MHz.

Flux_32744_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 32744 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_33256_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 33256 MHz.

Flux_33256_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 33256 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_33768_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 33768 MHz.

Flux_33768_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 33768 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_38232_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 38232 MHz.

Flux_38232_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 38232 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_38744_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 38744 MHz.

Flux_38744_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 38744 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_39256_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 39256 MHz.

Flux_39256_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 39256 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_39768_MHz_Limit
This parameter is set to '>' if the corresponding flux density is a lower limit to the actual value, i.e., the source is extended and some flux was likely 'resolved out' in the observation at 39768 MHz.

Flux_39768_MHz
The flux density, in mJy, of the source at 39768 MHz on the corresponding epoch of the observation.

Flux_4732_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 4732 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_5244_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 5244 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_5756_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 5756 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_6268_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 6268 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_8232_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 8232 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_8744_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 8744 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_9256_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 9256 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_9768_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 9768 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_17232_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 17232 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_17744_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 17744 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_18256_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 18256 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_18768_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 18768 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_23232_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 23232 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_23744_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 23744 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_24256_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 24256 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_24768_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 24768 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_32232_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 32232 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_32744_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 32744 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_33256_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 33256 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_33768_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 33768 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_38232_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 38232 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_38744_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 38744 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_39256_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 39256 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Flux_39768_MHz_Error
The uncertainty in the source flux density, in mJy, at 39768 MHz. The final error bars for each point source in each epoch have been estimated as the square root of the square of the gain term multiplied by the source flux density plus the square of the noise term. See Section 2 of the reference paper for a more complete discussion.

Best_Fit_A
The best-fit value of the parameter a (the first power-law spectral index) in the spectral fit model (see Overview above for more details).

Best_Fit_B
The best-fit value of the parameter b (the second power-law spectral index) in the spectral fit model (see Overview above for more details).

Best_Fit_Nu_0
The best-fit value of the reference frequency parameter nu0, in GHz, in the spectral fit model (see Overview above for more details).

Best_Fit_Flux_0
The best-fit value of the reference flux parameter S0, in Jy, in the spectral fit model (see Overview above for more details).

Reduced_Chi_Squared
The reduced chi-squared value of the best-fit spectral model (see Overview above for more details).


Contact Person

Questions regarding the PACOFSCAT database table can be addressed to the HEASARC User Hotline.

Page Author: Browse Software Development Team
Last Modified: 17-Jan-2014