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PLANCKESZC - Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Detected Cluster Candidates Catalog

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Overview

Planck is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with significant contributions from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). It is the third generation of space-based cosmic microwave background experiments, after the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Planck was launched on 14 May 2009 on an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana. Following a cruise to the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point, cooling and in orbit checkout, Planck initiated the First Light Survey on 13 August 2009. Since then, Planck has been continuously measuring the intensity of the sky over a range of frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz (wavelengths of 1 cm to 350 microns) with spatial resolutions ranging from about 33' to 5' respectively. The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on Planck provides temperature and polarization information using radiometers which operate between 30 and 70 GHz. The High Frequency Instrument (HFI) uses pairs of polarization-sensitive bolometers at each of four frequencies between 100 and 353 GHz but does not measure polarization information in the two upper HFI bands at 545 and 857 GHz. The lowest frequencies overlap with WMAP, and the highest frequencies extend far into the submillimeter in order to improve separation between Galactic foregrounds and the cosmic microwave background (CMB). By extending to wavelengths longer than those at which the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) operated, Planck is providing an unprecedented window into dust emission at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths.

The Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) is a list of all high reliability sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, derived from the first sky coverage. The data that went into this early release comprise all observations undertaken between 13 August 2009 and 6 June 2010, corresponding to Planck operational days 91-389. Since the Planck scan strategy results in the entire sky being observed every 6 months, the data considered in this release correspond to more than the first sky coverage. The source lists have reliability goals of >90% across the entire sky and >95% at high Galactic latitude. The goals on photometric accuracy are 30% while the positional accuracy goal translates to a positional root mean square (RMS) uncertainty that is less than 1/5 of the beam full width at half maximum (FWHM).

Detailed explanations about the mission and the catalogs included here can be found in the "Explanatory supplement" (file ftp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/VIII/88/ercsc4_3.pdf ). Skymaps of the sources can be found in the ftp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/VIII/88/skymaps/ subdirectory; postage stamps of the sources in the ECC (Early Cold Cores) catalog and in the different filters are located in the ftp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/VIII/88/stamps/ subdirectory.

This present table is the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (ESZ) cluster sample, a list of SZ cluster candidates which are detected by their multi-frequency signature through the Planck bands. The thermal SZ effect is the result of CMB photons inverse Compton scattering off energetic electrons in the hot intra-cluster medium. The net result is a distortion in the shape of the CMB spectrum which results in a deficit of flux density below ~220 GHz and an increment in flux density at higher frequencies. By utilizing a matched multi-frequency filter (MMF), the spectral signature of this distortion can be detected and measured in the Planck all-sky maps, which enables cluster candidates to be detected. The ESZ sample generated as part of the Planck early data release is the result of a blind multi-frequency search in the all-sky maps, i.e., no prior positional information on clusters detected in any existing catalogs was fed as input to the detection algorithm. In practice, the ESZ sample is produced using one of the four MMF algorithms available within the Planck Collaboration (hereafter MMF3; see Melin et al. 2010, A&A, submitted for details of the comparison of the cluster extraction algorithms). MMF3 is an all-sky extension of the algorithm described in Melin et al. (2006, A&A, 459, 341) and is run blindly over the six HFI frequency maps. The technique first divides the all-sky maps into a set of overlapping square patches. The matched multi-frequency filter then combines optimally the six frequencies of each patch assuming the SZ frequency spectrum and using the Arnaud et al. (2010, A&A, 517, A92) pressure profile as the cluster profile. Auto- and cross- power spectra used by the MMF are directly estimated from the data. They are thus adapted to the local instrumental noise and astrophysical contamination. For each patch, the scale radius of the cluster profile is varied to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of each detection. The algorithm thus assigns to each detected source an estimated size and an integrated flux. The detected sources extracted from individual patches are finally merged into an all-sky cluster list. Non-SZ sources captured by the MMF algorithm can contaminate the list and an additional step of validation of the detection is needed (see Section 12 of the "Explanatory supplement", available at ftp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/VIII/88/ercsc4_3.pdf for more details).


Catalog Bibcode

2011yCat.8088....0P

References

Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue
     Planck Collaboration
    <ESA, 2011>
    =2011yCat.8088....0P
See also:
Planck Collaboration. 2011a, Planck early results 01: The Planck mission
   (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011b, Planck early results 02: The thermal performance
   of Planck (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011c, Planck early results 07: The Early Release
   Compact Source Catalogue (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011d, Planck early results 08: The all-sky early
   Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011e, Planck early results 09: XMM-Newton follow-up
   for validation of Planck cluster candidates (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011f, Planck early results 10: Statistical analysis
   of Sunyaev- Zeldovich scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters
   (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011g, Planck early results 11: Calibration of the local
   galaxy cluster Sunyaev-Zeldovich scaling relations (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011h, Planck early results 12: Cluster
   Sunyaev-Zeldovich optical Scaling relations (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011i, Planck early results 13: Statistical properties
   of extragalactic radio sources in the Planck Early Release Compact Source
   Catalogue (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011j, Planck early results 14: Early Release Compact
   Source Cata- logue validation and extreme radio sources (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011k, Planck early results 15: Spectral energy
   distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio
   sources (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011l, Planck early results 16: The Planck view of
   nearby galaxies (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011m, Planck early results 17: Origin of the sub-mm
   excess dust emission in the Magellanic Clouds (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011n, Planck early results 18: The power spectrum of
   cosmic infrared background anisotropies (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011o, Planck early results 19: All-sky temperature and
   dust optical depth from Planck and IRAS - constraints on the "dark gas"
   in our Galaxy (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011p, Planck early results 20: New light on anomalous
   microwave emission from spinning dust grains (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011q, Planck early results 21: Properties of the
   interstellar medium in the Galactic plane (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011r, Planck early results 22: The submillimetre
   properties of a sample of Galactic cold clumps (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011s, Planck early results 23: The Galactic cold core
   population revealed by the first all-sky survey (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011t, Planck early results 24: Dust in the diffuse
   interstellar medium and the Galactic halo (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011u, Planck early results 25: Thermal dust in nearby
   molecular clouds (Submitted to A&A)
Planck Collaboration. 2011v, The Explanatory Supplement to the Planck Early
   Release Compact Source Catalogue (ESA)
Planck HFI Core Team. 2011a, Planck early results 04: First assessment of the
   High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance (Submitted to A&A)
Planck HFI Core Team. 2011b, Planck early results 06: The High Frequency
   Instrument data processing (Submitted to A&A)

Provenance

This table was created by the HEASARC in March 2011 based on CDS Catalog VIII/88 file esz.dat; the information for the comments parameter was extracted from the notes.txt file in that directory.

Parameters

Source_Number
A sequential identification number for each source in the Planck Early Sunyaev Zel'dovich Cluster Candidates Catalog in order of increasing Galactic Longitude.

Name
The Planck Early Sunyaev Zel'dovich (ESZ) designation of the cluster candidate. The source name designations consist of a prefix and a positional qualifier, where the latter is in Galactic coordinates and is specified as 'Glll.ll+bb.bb' where the (l,b) values are truncated to 10-2 degrees. The prefix used in the ESZ portion of the ERCSC is 'PLCKESZ' for 'Planck ESZ catalog'.

RA
The Right Ascension of the Planck SZ cluster candidate in the selected equinox. This was given in J2000.0 equatorial coordinates in decimal degrees to a precision of 10-4 degrees in the original table.

Dec
The Declination of the Planck SZ cluster candidate in the selected equinox. This was given in J2000.0 equatorial coordinates in decimal degrees to a precision of 10-4 degrees in the original table.

LII
The Galactic Longitude of the Planck SZ cluster candidate.

BII
The Galactic Latitude of the Planck SZ cluster candidate.

MMF_SNR
The Planck detection's signal-to-noise ratio as defined by the matched multi-filter method MMF3.

Alt_Name
For clusters identified at other wavelengths, this parameter contains the most commnon name of the cluster. The cluster names are written as follows:

    Axxxx = cluster from the Abell catalogue (CDS Cat. VII/110)
      ACO = cluster from the Abell, Corwin and Olowin catalogue (ident. Axxxx);
       RX = cluster from the ROSAT X-ray survey;
     CIZA = cluster from the "Cluster in the Zone of avoidance" sample;
      RBS = cluster from the ROSAT Bright Source (RBS) catalog;
     MACS = cluster from the "MAssive Cluster Survey" (Ebeling et al. 2010,
            2010MNRAS.407...83E)
     ZwCl = cluster from the Zwicky catalogue (Zwicky et al. 1961, (CDS
            Cat. VII/4)
  

Redshift
The redshift of the cluster, if known. The redshifts are taken from the Meta-Catalogue of X-ray Detected Clusters of Galaxies (MCXC: Piffaretti et al. 2010, arXiv:1007.1916) compilation unless otherwise stated in the notes and replicated in the comments parameter). Photometric redshifts are given to two decimal place, while spectroscopic redshifts are given to three decimal places, apart from those from the MCXC. Redshifts estimated for 9 of the 11 Planck cluster candidates confirmed by XMM-Newton observation are also included in the catalog. Details of those can be found in Planck Collaboration (2011e).

RA_Xray
The Right Ascension of the X-ray cluster in the selected equinox. This was given in J2000.0 equatorial coordinates in decimal degrees to a precision of 10-4 degrees in the original table. When a Planck SZ cluster candidate is identified as an X-ray cluster in the MCXC, the coordinates of the X-ray counterpart (i.e., the X-ray centroid) are given here. The same positional information is given for the Planck cluster candidates confirmed by XMM-Newton observation (apart from one candidate PLCKESZ G337.09-25.97 identified with a double cluster: see the comments parameter for this source for more details).

Dec_Xray
The Declination of the X-ray cluster in the selected equinox. This was given in J2000.0 equatorial coordinates in decimal degrees to a precision of 10-4 degrees in the original table. When a Planck SZ cluster candidate is identified as an X-ray cluster in the MCXC, the coordinates of the X-ray counterpart (i.e., the X-ray centroid) are given here. The same positional information is given for the Planck cluster candidates confirmed by XMM-Newton observation (apart from one candidate PLCKESZ G337.09-25.97 identified with a double cluster: see the comments parameter for this source for more details).

Xray_Angular_Size
The angular size of the X-ray cluster of galaxies at 5 * R500, THETAX, in arcminutes. R500 is the standard characteristic radius of the cluster within which the mean over-density of the cluster is 500 times the critical density at the cluster's redshift (see MCXC: Piffaretti et al. 2010, arXiv:1007.1916 for more details).

Xray_Int_Compton_Y
The integrated Compton-Y parameter value, YPSX, at the X-ray position of the cluster and within the quoted X-ray angular size, in arcmin2. For those clusters with an X-ray counterpart, the Compton-Y parameter, which is the integral of the Compton-y parameter over the cluster area, is re-extracted from the Planck maps using the X-ray centroid coordinates and the X-ray size THETAX as priors, yielding the value of YPSX and its error. The Compton-Y parameter measured using the X-ray position and size priors is known to be more robust than the blind value estimated without priors (Planck Collaboration 2011d).

Xray_Int_Compton_Y_Error
The uncertainty in the integrated Compton-Y parameter value, in arcmin2.

MMF_Angular_Size
The estimated angular size of the cluster candidate, THETA, as determined from the Planck data using the matched multi-filter (MMF3) algorithm, in arcminutes. This is quoted only for cluster candidates which lack known X-ray counterparts.

MMF_Angular_Size_Error
The uncertainty in the estimated angular size of the cluster candidate, as determined from the Planck data using the matched multi-filter (MMF3) algorithm, in arcminutes. This is quoted only for cluster candidates which lack known X-ray counterparts.

MMF_Int_Compton_Y
The integrated Compton-Y parameter value, Y, at the Planck position of the cluster and within the quoted angular size, THETA, determined using the MMF3 algorithm, in arcmin2. This is quoted only for cluster candidates which lack known X-ray counterparts.

MMF_Int_Compton_Y_Error
The uncertainty in the integrated Compton-Y parameter value, in arcmin2. This is quoted only for cluster candidates which lack known X-ray counterparts.

Comments
A note concerning the specified source.


Contact Person

Questions regarding the PLANCKESZC database table can be addressed to the HEASARC User Hotline.

Page Author: Browse Software Development Team
Last Modified: 22-Jan-2014