- 5.1 autocor
- 5.2 crosscor
- 5.3 efold
- 5.4 efsearch
- 5.5 lcmath
- 5.6 lcstats
- 5.7 lcurve
- 5.8 listdata
- 5.9 powspec
- 5.10 timeskew
- 5.11 xronwin
- 5.12 ascii2flc
- 5.13 flc2ascii
- 5.14 rbf2fits
- 5.15 earth2sun

This task calculates an auto correlation for one time series, plots and
outputs the results (in a FITS file). The auto correlation is computed
either by an FFT algorithm (`fast=yes`, the default) or a slower direct
Fourier algorithm (`fast=no`). Both FITS binned data format and event
format are valid input, and can be rebinned and divided into Intervals
and Frames. The results of the auto correlation from several intervals
can be averaged in a frame, and the averaged results can be rebinned.
The standard plot output is the auto correlation function versus time
delay (positive) given in seconds.

When `outfiletype=2` (the default), the output file for the
`autocor` task contains in each extension the following columns: time
delay, half width of time delay bin, autocorrelation and error. Not
many applications can currently deal with the output files produced
when `outfiletype=1`.

Usage: autocor cfile1 window dtnb nbint nintfm rebin outfile plot plotdev

The following represents the parameters that will be queried interactively if not specified when the task is executed.

cfile1 - Ser. 1 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] window - Name of the window file ('-' for default window)[-] dtnb - Newbin Time or negative rebinning[] nbint - Number of Newbins/Interval[] nintfm - Number of Intervals/Frame[] rebin - Rebin results? (>1 const rebin, <-1 geom. rebin, 0 none)[0] outfile - Name of output file[default] plot - Do you want to plot your results?[yes] plotdev - Enter PGPLOT device[/XW]

The following parameters are used by `autocor`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat logname clobber dpath *cfile1 window dtnb nbint nintfm rebin nbdf itre itremo outfile outfileroot outfiletype plot plotdev plotfile gapfill forcestart *errorbars exposure *normalization spwinbefore spwinafter rescale offset *fast

(Character parameter; queried)

Specify input filename for the time series (+ options) used to calculate
auto-correlation. The valid input files are in FITS format using the
BINTABLE extension. Xronos tasks may read for each time series many
consecutive input files (up to 50). Additional flexibility is provided
by "Input File Options" which are used to perform algebraic operations
on individual input files (either on the 'times' or on the 'count' or
'count/s' values). The "Input File Options" are also used to select
columns and rows within a FITS file. If the first character of the
input string is `@`, the rest of the string is taken to be a filename
containing the list of input files (see "Filelist").

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=5; range 1)

If the specified number of intervals per frame (`nintfm`) is greater
than or equal to the value of `errorbars` parameter (default=5), the
error bars are calculated from the standard deviation of the average of
the auto correlations in each delay bin from different intervals.
Otherwise there are two behaviors depending on the `fast` parameter.
If `fast=yes` (the default), the error bars are set to zero. If
`fast=no`, error bars are obtained by propagating the theoretical
errors bars of the auto correlations from individual intervals in turn
obtained by propagating the newbin error bars through the auto
correlation formula.

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=1)

Specify the type of normalization to apply to the results.
The `normalization` parameter has the following meanings (and values):

`=0`autocorrelations are normalised by dividing by the number of good newbins in each interval,*i.e.*they are autocovariances.`=1`(d/f); autocorrelations are normalised by dividing by the number of good newbins and the variance of newbins in each interval. The autocorrelation at zero time delay is =1 by definition.`=2`non-zero (zero) delay autocorrelations are normalised by dividing by the number of good newbins and the excess variance (variance) of newbins in each interval. Problems arise when, due to statistical fluctuations, the excess variance of an interval is negative. In order to avoid a meaningless negative normalization,`autocor`automatically adopts normalization 1.`=3`non-zero (zero) delay autocorrelations are normalised by dividing by the excess variance (variance) of newbins in each frame after averaging autocovariances. Problems arise again when, due to statistical fluctuations, the excess variance of a frame is negative. In this case normalization 1 is adopted automatically.

(Logical parameter; hidden; d/f=yes)

Sets the algorithm used for the Fourier transform. If yes (the
default), an FFT algorthim is used, otherwise a slower direct Fourier
calculation is performed. Note: if `fast=yes`, `nbint` must be a power
of 2 due to the use of the FFT algorithm.

From a time series of length 10000 seconds with a binning of 6.25e-2 seconds, calculate the auto correlation function of 8192 points (equivalent to an interval in time of 512 seconds) and average every 5 intervals in one frame (4 frames in total). Apply no rebinning to the results, make a plot and output the results in a file. > autocor cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" dtnb=6.25e-2 nbint=8192 nintfm=5 rebin=0 plot=yes plotdev="/xw" outfile="-" Same as above but all the intervals are averaged in one frame > autocor cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" dtnb=6.25e-2 nbint=8192 nintfm=INDEF rebin=0 plot=yes plotdev="/xw" outfile="-"

This task calculates the cross correlation of 2 input time series,
plots and outputs the results (in a FITS file). The cross correlation
is computed either by an FFT algorithm (`fast=yes`, the default) or a
slower direct Fourier algorithm (`fast=no`). It requires two
simultaneous input time series (FITS format). The results of the cross
correlation from several intervals can be averaged in a frame. The
standard plot output is cross correlation versus time delay. The time
delays refer to the 1st series: therefore a cross correlation function
peaking for positive time delays indicates that variations in the 2nd
series lag those in the 1st series.

When `outfiletype=2` (the default), the output file for the
`crosscor` task contains in each extension the following columns: time
delay, half width of time delay bin, cross correlation and error. Not
many applications can currently deal with the output files produced
when `outfiletype=1`.

Usage: crosscor cfile1 cfile2 window dtnb nbint nintfm plot plotdev outfile

The following represents the parameters that will be queried interactively if not specified when the task is executed.

cfile1 - Ser. 1 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] cfile2 - Ser. 2 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] window - Name of the window file ('-' for default window)[-] dtnb - Newbin Time or negative rebinning[] nbint - Number of Newbins/Interval[] nintfm - Number of Intervals/Frame[] outfile - Name of output file[default] plot - Do you want to plot your results?[yes] plotdev - Enter PGPLOT device[/XW]

The following parameters are used by `crosscor`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat logname clobber dpath *cfile1 *cfile2 window dtnb nbint nintfm nbdf itre itremo outfile outfileroot outfiletype plot plotdev plotfile gapfill forcestart *errorbars exposure *normalization *simultaneous spwinbefore spwinafter rescale offset *fast

(Character parameter; queried)

Specify input filenames for the time series (+ options) used to
calculate cross-correlation. The valid input files are in FITS format
using the BINTABLE extension. Xronos tasks may read for each time
series many consecutive input files (up to 50). Additional flexibility
is provided by "Input File Options" which are used to perform algebraic
operations on individual input files (either on the 'times' or on the
'count' or 'count/s' values). The "Input File Options" are also used to
select columns and rows within a FITS file. If the first character of
the input string is `@`, the rest of the string is taken to be a
filename containing the list of input files (see "Filelist").

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=5; range 1)

If the specified number of intervals per frame (`nintfm`) is greater
than or equal to the value of `errorbars` parameter (default=5), the
error bars are calculated from the standard deviation of the average of
the cross correlations in each delay bin from different intervals.
Otherwise, there are two behaviors depending on the `fast` parameter.
If `fast=yes` (the default), the error bars are set to zero. If
`fast=no`, error bars are obtained by propagating the theoretical
errors bars of the cross correlations from individual intervals in turn
obtained by propagating the newbin error bars through the cross
correlation formula.

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=1)

Specify the type of normalization to apply to the results.
The `normalization` parameter has the following meanings (and values):

`=0`cross correlations are normalised by dividing by the square root of the product of the number of good newbins of the two series in each interval,*i.e.*they are cross covariances.`=1`(d/f); cross correlations are normalised as in the case =0 and by dividing also by the square root of the product of the newbin variances of the two series in each interval. Since the variance contains also the variance expected from (Poisson) noise etc. in newbins, all values of the cross correlation are underestimated.`=2`cross correlations are normalized as in the case =0 and by dividing also by the square root of the product of the newbin excess variances of the two series in each interval. Problems arise when, due to statistical fluctuations, the excess variance of an interval is negative for any of the two series. To avoid negative normalization,`crosscor`adopts normalization 1.`=3`cross correlations are normalized by dividing by the square root of the product of the average newbin excess variances of the two series in each frame after averaging cross covariances. If the excess variance in a frame is negative, for any of the two series,`crosscor`adopts automatically normalization 1.

(Logical parameter; hidden; d/f=no)

If =yes a strict simultaneousness between the two series can be imposed
(*i.e.* if the n-th newbin of a series is a gap or is rejected, then the
n-th newbin of all other series will be also rejected). This is useful
to check whether artificial time delay between the two series are
introduced by a non strict simultaneousness of the two series.

(Logical parameter; hidden; d/f=yes)

Sets the algorithm used for the Fourier transform. If yes (the
default), an FFT algorthim is used, otherwise a slower direct Fourier
calculation is performed. Note: if `fast=yes`, `nbint` must be a power
of 2 due to the use of the FFT algorithm.

Given 2 time series with an original binning of 1 second and length 1.5 hours compute the cross correlation in intervals of 1024 points and average all the results per interval in a frame. Make a plot and output the results. > crosscor cfile1="mydata1.lc" cfile2="myfile2.lc" window="-" dtnb=1 nbint=1024 nintfm=INDEF plot=yes plotdev="/xw" outfile="-" As before but using as input file a list of filenames (@all.lis) (see "Filelist"). > crosscor cfile1="@all.lis" window="-" dtnb=1 nbint=1024 nintfm=INDEF plot=yes plotdev="/xw" outfile="-" Given 2 time series with an original binning of 1 second and length 1.5 hours compute cross correlation using all the data in one interval (nintfm=1). The number of points in such interval length are 5400 and for the fast method this requires that the number of points be a power of two. The closest value is 8192. > crosscor cfile1="@all.lis" window="-" dtnb=1 nbint=8192 nintfm=INDEF plot=yes plotdev="/xw" outfile="-"

This task calculates folded lightcurves, plots and outputs the results
(in a FITS file). Up to 4 simultaneous time series can be input (FITS
format) and ratios and sums are calculated (for more that 2 input
series). In `efold` the newbin time corresponds to the time duration
of a phase bin in the folded light curve, internally calculated after
input a number of phase bins. Folded lightcurves from different
intervals can be averaged in one or more frame. The standard plot
output is normalised counts/sec versus phase, but for multiple time
series the hardness and colour-colour diagrams are available where
appropriate.

The output for `efold` task consists of phase and counts/s vectors
(with associated error columns) There are as many count/s vectors as
there are of time series analysed (therefore up to 4). For 2 input
series the additional columns contain the ratio (ser2/ser1) and the sum
(ser1+ser2) of the input series and their errors. For 3 input series
the additional columns contain two ratios (ser2/ser1 and ser3/ser2) and
the sum (ser1+ser2+ser3) and their errors. For 4 input series the
additional columns contain two ratios (ser2/ser1 and ser4/ser3) and the
sum (ser1+ser2+ser3+ser4) and their errors. The output also contains a
fractional exposure column (currently is filled with values different
from 1 only for 1 input series)

Usage: efold nser file(s)+options window sepoch dper nphase nbint nintfm plot plotdev plotdnum outfile

The following represents the parameters that will be queried interactively if not specified when the task is executed.

nser - Number of time series for this task[] cfile1 - Ser. 1 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] cfile2 - Ser. 2 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] cfile3 - Ser. 3 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] cfile4 - Ser. 4 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] window - Name of the window file ('-' for default window)[-] sepoch - Epoch[] dper - Period[] nphase - Phasebins/Period {value or neg. power of 2}[] nbint - Number of Newbins/Interval[] nintfm - Number of Intervals/Frame[] outfile - Name of output file[default] plot - Do you want to plot your results?[yes] plotdev - Enter PGPLOT device[/XW] plotdnum - Enter PLOT style number (default=1 )[1]

The following parameters are used by `efold`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat logname clobber dpath *nser *cfile1 *cfile2 *cfile3 *cfile4 window *epochfo *sepoch *perfo *dper *dpdot nphase nbint nintfm nbdf outfile outfileroot outfiletype plot plotdev plotfile *plotdnum forcestart *errorbars exposure *normalization spwinbefore spwinafter rescale offset *flatexpo

(Integer parameter; queried; d/f=1)

Number of input time series simultaneously processed. Only the `cfile`
parameters up to the value for `nser` will be prompted.

(Character parameter; queried)

Input filenames for the time series (+ options) to be folded.
The valid input files are in FITS format using the
BINTABLE extension. Xronos tasks may read for each time series many
consecutive input files (up to 50). Additional flexibility is provided
by "Input File Options" which are used to perform algebraic operations
on individual input files (either on the 'times' or on the 'count' or
'count/s' values). The "Input File Options" are also used to select
columns and rows within a FITS file. If the first character of the
input string is `@`, the rest of the string is taken to be a filename
containing the list of input files (see "Filelist").

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=1; values=1,2,3)

Specify format for the input epoch of phase zero. There are
three possible formats for `epochfo`: (1) days; (2) integer
days and second (dd ss); and (3) days hours minute second and
millisecond (dd hh mm ss ms). The `epochfo` default format is
set to days (1).

(String parameter; queried)

Value for epoch used as phase zero in the folding. The default value is the integer day of the start time.

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=1; values=1,2)

Specify format for the input period. The period can be input either as (1) fractional days or in (2) seconds. The default value is set to seconds (2).

(Real parameter; queried)

Value for the period used in the folding.

(Real parameter; hidden; d/f=0)

Period derivative.

(Integer parameter; queried; d/f=1; values=1,2,3,4)

The parameter sets the number of subplots which will appear on
the plotting device. For more than 1 input series, two
different plots are provided which are differentiated by the
number of final subplot. The first has TIME or PHASE (default
plot) on the X-axis and as many Y-axis as the number of input
time series (lightcurve or folded lightcurve). The parameter
`plotdnum`, in this case, should be set equal to the total
number of timeseries (*e.g.* 1, 2, 3 or 4). The second plot
type is available only for 2 or more time series and gives
either Hardness versus total Intensity (2 series) or
Colour-Colour diagram (3 or 4 series). To obtain this type of
plot, the parameter `plotdnum` should be set equal 1 regardless
of the time series number. For more information see the "Plotting
Multiple Series" section under "QDP/PLT".

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=5; range 1)

The error bars are calculated after averaging folded lightcurves from
different intervals in a frame. If the specified number of intervals
per frame (`nintfm`) is greater than or equal to the value of
`errorbars` parameter (default=5), the error bars are calculated from
the standard deviation of the mean values of each phase bin. Otherwise
the error bars are obtained by propagating the error in each phase.

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=1)

Specify the type of normalization to apply to the results.
The `normalization` parameter has the following meanings (and values):

`=0`folded light curve are normalised to counts/s`=1`(d/f) folded light curves are normalised by dividing by the average source intensity in the frame (normalised intensity)

Note the hardness ratios are not affected by the normalization flag.

(Logical parameter; hidden; d/f=no)

If =yes a strict simultaneousness between the two series can be imposed
(*i.e.* if the n-th newbin of a series is a gap or is rejected, then the
n-th newbin of all other series will be also rejected). This is useful
to check whether artificial time delay between the two series are
introduced by a non strict simultaneousness of the two series.

(Logical parameter; hidden; d/f=no)

This parameter sets the exposure in each bin of the folded lightcurve
to be constant (=1) when dealing with event file. For an event file
the exposure in each folded bin is calculated using the GTI extension
to account for the data gap in the data. If the period used in the
folding is very short compared to the gaps, this calculation slows down
the program since the exposure is being calculated for each `nbint`.
For fast periods since the number of bins affected by the gap is quite
reduced, it is possible to speed the calculation by setting
`flatexpo=yes`.

For a single file data (1 time series) of length 5000 seconds, calculate the folded lightcurve using a period of 37 seconds and 10 phase bins using 1352 data points (this will correspond to one interval per frame). Make a plot and output the results. > efold nser=1 cfile1="myfile.lc" window="-" sepoch=INDEF dper=37 nphase=10 nbint=1352 nintfm=INDEF plot=yes plotdev="/xw" plotdnum=1 outfile="-" As above but using only 300 points per interval and average all the intervals in one frame. > efold nser=1 cfile1="myfile.lc" window="-" sepoch=INDEF dper=37 nphase=10 nbint=300 nintfm=INDEF plot=yes plotdev="/xw" plotdnum=1 outfile="-" As above but using 3 input series and plot the Colour-Colour diagram > efold nser=3 cfile1="@all.lis" window="-" sepoch=INDEF dper=37 nphase=10 nbint=300 nintfm=INDEF plot=yes plotdev="/xw" plotdnum=1 outfile="-"

This task searches for periodicities in a time series (input in FITS
format) by folding data over a range of periods, determines the chi-square
of the folded lightcurve, plots the chi-square values versus the
periods with the best period found in the search written as a label
in the plot, and outputs the results (in a FITS file). The search can
be separately done in different Intervals. In `efsearch` the newbin
time corresponds to the time duration of a phase bin in the folded
light curve, internally calculated after inputting a number of phase bins.
The newbins per interval and the newbin time determines the length of
the time axis, *e.g.* an internal, over which a group of folded light
curves is accumulated and their chi-square versus period is calculated.
The period resolution is the spacing between two contiguous periods in
the search. The default adopted is half of the Fourier resolution in
the interval, P*P/T/2 where P is the trial period and T the interval
duration. With the above resolution a coherent periodicity will appear
as a 1-2 bin broad peak in the chi-square versus period plot.
The period values are determined by adding to Po the total number
of periods equispaced by the given resolution, where Po is determined by
subtracting half of the total number of periods equispaced by the given
resolution from the trial period. Error bars for the chi-square represent
the standard deviation of the relevant chi-square distribution rescale by
the value of the chi-square for each period divided by N-1, where N is
the number of phase bins.

The output for the `efsearch` task for `outfiletype=2`
contains in each extension the following columns: period,
chi-square and error. Not many applications can currently deal
with the output files produced when `outfiletype=1`.

Usage: efsearch cfile1 window sepoch dper nphase nbint dres nper outfile plot plotdev

cfile1 - Ser. 1 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] window - Name of the window file ('-' for default window)[-] sepoch - Epoch[] dper - Period[] nphase - Phasebins/Period {value or neg. power of 2}[] nbint - Number of Newbins/Interval[] dres - Resolution for period search {value or neg. power of 2}[] nper - Number of periods to search[100] outfile - Name of output file[default] plot - Do you want to plot your results?[yes] plotdev - Enter PGPLOT device[/XW]

The following parameters are used by `efsearch`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat logname clobber dpath *cfile1 window *epochfo *sepoch *perfo *dper *dpdot *dres *nper nphase nbint nintfm nbdf outfile outfileroot outfiletype plot plotdev plotfile forcestart exposure spwinbefore spwinafter rescale offset *flatexpo

(Character parameter; queried)

Specify input filename for the time series + options to be searched.
The valid input files are in FITS format using the BINTABLE extension.
Xronos tasks may read for each time series many consecutive input files
(up to 50). Additional flexibility is provided by "Input File Options"
which are used to perform algebraic operations on individual input
files (either on the 'times' or on the 'count' or 'count/s' values).
The "Input File Options" are also used to select columns and rows
within a FITS file. If the first character of the input string is `@`,
the rest of the string is taken to be a filename containing the list of
input files (see "Filelist").

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=1; values=1,2,3)

Specify format for the input epoch of phase zero. There are
three possible formats for `epochfo`: (1) days; (2) integer
days and second (dd ss); and (3) days hours minute second and
millisecond (dd hh mm ss ms). The `epochfo` default format is
set to days (1).

(String parameter; queried)

Value for epoch used as phase zero in the folding. The default value is the integer day of the start time.

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=1; values=1,2)

Specify format for the input period. The period can be input either as (1) fractional days or in (2) seconds. The default value is set to seconds (2).

(Real parameter; queried)

The value used as the center of the range of trial periods.

(Real parameter; hidden; d/f=0)

Period derivative.

(Real parameter; queried)

The period resolution is the spacing between two contiguous periods in
the search. The resolution value should be given in the same unit
(seconds or days) used for the period. Typing `INDEF` forces the task
to use the default value which corresponds to half of the Fourier
resolution in the interval (*e.g.* P*P/T(i)/2 where P is the period and
T(i) is the interval duration).

(Integer parameter; queried; d/f=100)

The number of periods over which the search is carried out.

(Logical parameter; hidden; d/f=no)

This parameter sets the exposure in each bin of the folded lightcurve
to be constant (=1) when dealing with event file. For an event file
the exposure in each folded bin is calculated using the GTI extension
to account for the data gap in the data. If the period used in the
folding is very short compared to the gaps, this calculation slows down
the program since the exposure is being calculated for each `nbint`.
For fast periods since the number of bins affected by the gap is quite
reduced, it is possible to speed the calculation by setting
`flatexpo=yes`.

Using 1.5 hours of data, search over 100 periods for the best chi-square (period), using a trial period of 37 seconds and folding the lightcurve over 10 phases with the default resolution (period step). Make a plot and output the results. > efsearch cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" sepoch=INDEF dper=37 nphase=10 nbint=INDEF nper=100 dres=INDEF outfile="-" plot=yes plotdev="/xw" As above but divide the data in two intervals. Two parameters change from the above setup: `nbint` and `dres`. The newbin time in 1.5 hours of data using a period of 37 seconds and 10 phases is 3.7 seconds, therefore the total number of "nbint" in 1.5 hours is 1460. To search in half of the data (e.g. two intervals) nbint should be set to 730. Note that the default resolution in this case will reduce by half. > efsearch cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" sepoch=INDEF dper=37 nphase=10 nbint=730 nper=100 dres=INDEF outfile="-" plot=yes plotdev="/xw"

This program takes as input two binned lightcurves and calculates a
result lightcurve either subtracting (second from the first) or
adding the two input files. The two input files should cover the
same time interval. In particular the start time and the stop time
of the first lightcurve should be included within the start and
stop time of the second lightcurve. Errors are given if the start
and/or the stop are outside of the time interval of the second file.
The time resolution of the two files can be different, but the
integration time of the first input file should be always less than
or equal to that in the second input file. The task does not work
for input files containing an EVENT table. Constant scaling and
additive factors can be separately input for both lightcurves. By
default, the task will apply any vignetting (or collimator) and
deadtime correction information contained in the input file (header
keywords VIGNET and DEADC) to the result lightcurve. The user may
cancel this correction by setting the parameter `docor=no`. The columns
names recognized by the task are TIME, COUNT, RATE and ERROR. The
units (TUNITn keyword) are expected to be 'count' for column name
'COUNT' and 'count/s' for column name RATE. The input file
structure is a FITS bintable with data stored in the column COUNT
or RATE either as a single element or a vector of element in each
row. For the last case the task works correctly only if the column
n contains a vector of counts in different channel (the value of
the column keyword 1CTYPn should be "CHANNEL"). The parameters
`emin` and `emax` are applicable in this case. The structure of the
output file will always have data stored as a single element in
each row.

Usage: lcmath infile bgfile outfile multi multb

infile - name of input fits file[] bgfile - name of background fits file[] outfile - name of output fits file[] multi - Scaling factor for input[1.] multb - Scaling factor for background[1.] addsubr - Add instead of subract?[no]

The following parameters are used by `lcmath`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat *infile *bgfile *outfile *multi *multb *addsubr *addi *addb *docor *emin *emax *err_mode

(Character parameter; queried)

The name of the first input lightcurve. If the task is used in subtraction mode the file should contain source+background data.

(Character parameter; queried)

The name of the second input lightcurve. If the task is used in subtraction mode the file should contain background data.

(Character parameter; queried)

The name of the output result lightcurve. If `lcmath` is used in
the subtracting mode the file contain source data only and the
keyword BACKAPP is added or updated.

(Real parameter; queried; d/f=1.)

Scaling factor for first input lightcurve.

(Real parameter; queried; d/f=1.)

Scaling factor for second input lightcurve (or background lightcurve).

(Logical parameter; queried; d/f=no)

Flag to add input lightcurve instead of subtract. The default
value is set to subtract (`addsubr=no`) the lightcurve.

(Real parameter; hidden; d/f=0.)

Additive offset for first input lightcurve. This value should be given as counts (internally the value corrected for the bin fractional exposure).

(Real parameter; hidden; d/f=0.)

Additive offset for second input lightcurve (or background lightcurve). This value should be given as counts (internally the value is corrected for the bin fractional exposure).

(Logical parameter; hidden; d/f=yes)

Whether to apply the corrections to the result lightcurve. If the input lightcurves have stored in the header the vignetting or collimator (VIGNET keyword) and the deadtime (keyword DEADC) correction, this is also applied by default to the output lightcurve.

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=0)

Minimum energy channel to use. Enter 0 for no lower bound.

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=0)

Maximum energy channel to use. Enter 0 for no upper bound.

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=1; values 1-6)

If scaling and additive factors are input for both files the derived counts are calculated as:

count1=M1*x1 + C1 count2=M2*x2 + C2where M1 and M2 are the input scaling values for the first and second lightcurve respectively; C1 and C2 are the additive input factors in counts (rescaling for the fractional exposure) and x1 and x2 are the value always in counts read from the files (if the file contains rate x1 and x2 are the value after rescaling for the integration and exposure time).

The final results in the output file will be:

count3=count1 -/+ count2 divided for the integration time

The error for count3 is calculated as:

err3=sqrt(err1**2 + err2**2)where err3, err2, and err1 are the error values for the count3, count2 and count1 respectively.

To calculate the individual errors (*i.e.* err1 for the quantity count1
and err2 for the quantity count2) the user can choose one of the 6
different methods listed below.

Mode 1 err1=sqrt((sqrt(M1*sx1*sx1))**2 + C1) Mode 2 err1=sqrt((M1*sx1)**2) Mode 3 err1=sqrt( (sqrt(M1*sx1*sx1))**2) Mode 4 err1=sqrt( (M1*sx1)**2 + C1) Mode 5 err1=sqrt(count1) Mode 6 The error in the output file is set equal to the value of the error of first input file (i.e. err3=sx1)If the file contains an error column, sx1 is the value in the file rescaled for the integration time and exposure, otherwise sx1 is set as the sqrt(x1) or sqrt(x2). If x1 or x2 are 0 the error (sx1 or sx2) is set to 1. If the scaling factor is 1 and the additive factor is 0, the methods 1,2,3,4 are equivalent.

This task performs statistical analysis for one times series and prints the results on the screen (no output is produced). The input file format is FITS using the BINTABLE extension in either binned data or event list format.

The following quantities are calculated:

- Newbin integration time (x2 gives the shortest timescale sampled in the analysis)
- Interval duration (gives the longest timescale sampled)
- Number of good (accepted) newbins in interval
- Average (and its error)
- Standard deviation
- Minimum and maximum count rates in interval
- Variance (and its Gaussian error), as evaluated from the data scatter
- Expected variance from a constant source (and its Gaussian error), as evaluated from the errors in the newbin count rates (corrected for dead time effects as appropriate)
- Third moment
- Average absolute deviation
- Skewness (and its Gaussian error)
- Kurtosis (and its Gaussian error)
- RMS fractional variation (and its Gaussian error) or a 3 sigma upper limit if the variance is not larger than the expected variance at a confidence level higher than 99.86%
- Chi-square and corresponding number of degrees of freedom
- Constant source probability associated to the Chi-square value
- Constant source probability from a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (note however that, strictly speaking, this test should be applied only to unbinned data; moreover this test often fails if used with background subtracted light curves of faint sources)

Usage: lcstats cfile1 window dtnb nbint

cfile1 - Ser. 1 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] window - Name of the window file ('-' for default window)[-] dtnb - Newbin Time or negative rebinning[] nbint - Number of Newbins/Interval[]

The following parameters are used by `lcstats`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat logname dpath *cfile1 window dtnb nbint nbdf itre itremo forcestart exposure spwinbefore spwinafter rescale offset

(Character parameter; queried)

Specify input filename for the time series (+ options) to calculate
statistics. The valid input files are in FITS format using the
BINTABLE extension. Xronos tasks may read for each time series many
consecutive input files (up to 50). Additional flexibility is provided
by "Input File Options" which are used to perform algebraic operations
on individual input files (either on the 'times' or on the 'count' or
'count/s' values). The "Input File Options" are also used to select
columns and rows within a FITS file. If the first character of the
input string is `@`, the rest of the string is taken to be a filename
containing the list of input files (see "Filelist").

Calculate statistical variables for an input time series with a binning of 100 seconds and a start-stop=5000 seconds in one interval (50 newbin per interval) > lcstats cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" dtnb=INDEF nbint=50 For an input time series (consisting of several files) with an original binning of 400 seconds and a total length of 6 hours, calculate statistical variables using a newbin of 800 seconds over 2-hour intervals (9 newbin per interval for a total of 3 intervals). > lcstats cfile1="@all.lis" window="-" dtnb=800 nbint=9 The file `all.lis` contains the list of filenames for one time series (see "Filelist").

Produces binned lightcurves and plot up to 4 simultaneous energy time series. For more than 2 input time series, ratio and sum are also calculated. This task produces binned lightcurves, plots and outputs the results (in a FITS file). The standard plot output is counts/sec versus time, but for multiple time series the hardness and colour-colour diagrams are available where appropriate.

The output for the `lcurve` task consists of time and counts/s
vectors (with associated error columns). There are as many count/s
vectors as there are time series analysed (therefore up to 4). The
time column always contains number of seconds from the keyword
TIMEZERO (or TIMEZERI and TIMEZERF). The time in the output
(TIME(n)+TIMEZERO) is in TJD (TJD=JD-2440000.5) if the input light
curves have the MJDREF keyword present in the header, otherwise the
original times are maintained. Note that the TIMESYS keyword in
either cases is not currently set. For 2 input series the
additional columns contain the ratio (ser2/ser1) and the sum
(ser1+ser2) of the input series and their errors. For 3 input
series the additional columns contain two ratios (ser2/ser1 and
ser3/ser2) and the sum (ser1+ser2+ser3) and their errors. For 4
input series the additional columns contain two ratios (ser2/ser1
and ser4/ser3) and the sum (ser1+ser2+ser3+ser4) and their errors.
The output also contains a fractional exposure column (currently is
filled with values different from 1 for only 1 input series)

Usage: lcurve nser file(s)+options window dtnb nbint outfile plot plotdev

nser - Number of time series for this task[] cfile1 - Ser. 1 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] cfile2 - Ser. 2 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] cfile3 - Ser. 3 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] cfile4 - Ser. 4 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] window - Name of the window file ('-' for default window)[-] dtnb - Newbin Time or negative rebinning[] nbint - Number of Newbins/Interval[] outfile - Name of output file[default] plot - Do you want to plot your results?[yes] plotdev - Enter PGPLOT device[/XW] plotdnum - Enter PLOT style number (default=1 )[1]

The following parameters are used by `lcurve`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat logname clobber dpath *nser *cfile1 *cfile2 *cfile3 *cfile4 window dtnb nbint nbdf *tunits outfile outfileroot outfiletype plot plotdev plotfile *plotdnum itre itremo forcestart exposure *simultaneous spwinbefore spwinafter rescale offset

(Integer parameter; queried; d/f=1)

Number of input time series simultaneously processed. Only the `cfile`
parameters up to the value for `nser` will be prompted.

(Character parameter; queried)

Specify input filenames for the time series (+ options). The valid
input files are in FITS format using the BINTABLE extension. Xronos
tasks may read for each time series many consecutive input files (up to
50). Additional flexibility is provided by "Input File Options" which
are used to perform algebraic operations on individual input files
(either on the 'times' or on the 'count' or 'count/s' values). The
"Input File Options" are also used to select columns and rows within a
FITS file. If the first character of the input string is `@`, the rest
of the string is taken to be a filename containing the list of input
files (see "Filelist").

(Integer parameter; hidden; values 0-4)

Five different time axis units can be specified: (0) seconds
from the start time of the current interval (which might be
different from the time of the first accepted newbin) (1)
seconds from the start of the hour, (2) hours from the start of
the day, (3) days, (4) seconds from the start time of the first
interval. Option 4 is useful when the lightcurve is broken into
several intervals and it is desirable to maintain for each
plotted interval the same counter (from the start time of the
first interval) for the time axis. The default depends on the
duration of the input series and is printed on the screen.
Typing `INDEF` forces the task to use the calculated value.

(Integer parameter; queried; d/f=1; values=1,2,3,4)

The parameter sets the number of subplots which will appear on the
plotting device. For 2 input series, three different plots are
available: 1) Total intensity on X-axis and Ratio on Y-axis (Hardness),
2) Time (or Phase) on the X-axis and intensity of the 2 input series on
the Y-axis, and 3) as 2 but also the ratio is plotted. The parameter
`plotdnum` should be set equal to 1 or 2 or 3 respectively to get one
of the three style plots. For 3 or 4 input series only two style of
plots are available : 1) Colour-Colour diagram (ratio 1 vs ratio 2) and
2) Time (or phase) on the X-axis and intensity of the 3 (or 4) input
series on the Y-axis. The parameter `plotdnum` should be set equal to
1 or to the total number of input timeseries (*e.g.* 3 or 4) respectively
to get one of the two style plots. For more information see the
"Plotting Multiple Series" section under "QDP/PLT".

(Logical parameter; hidden; d/f=no)

If =yes a strict simultaneity is forced between the input series
provided more than one series has been specified (*i.e.* if the n-th
newbin of a series is a gap or is rejected, then the n-th newbin of all
other series will be also rejected).

From a single file data (1 time series) with a binning of 20 seconds and a start-stop=5000 seconds, create a one interval lightcurve with a binning of 100 seconds. Make a plot and output the results. >lcurve nser=1 cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" dtnb=100 nbint=50 outfile="-" plot=yes plotdev="/xw" From 3 input series with a binning of 20 seconds and a length of 5 hours, create a one-interval lightcurve with a binning of 400 seconds. Plot the Colour-Colour diagram and not create an output. >lcurve nser=3 cfile1="@all.lis" window="-" dtnb=400 nbint=45 outfile=" " plot=yes plotdev="/xw" plotdnum=1 The file `all.lis` contains the list of filenames for each series (see "Filelist").

This task lists on screen a summary header and the data points of input
file(s) for one time series. The input file format is FITS using the
BINTABLE extension in either binned data or event format. For each
data point the following is printed on the screen : time associated
with the bin N as fractional day, and the h:m:s:ms of that day, the
integration time (set -1 for event list), count/s, error and fractional
exposure (set to 1 for event list). Changing the `tchat` parameter to
higher values causes the FITS header to be printed as well. To list
only part of the data Phase, Intensity and Exposure windows (See
"Windows") can be used for screening. A range of data rows can be
selected using the input option `frN` and `lrM` where n and M are
the first and the last row to be printed on the screen.

cfile1 - Ser. 1 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] window - Name of the window file ('-' for default window)[-]

The following parameters are used by `listdata`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat logname dpath *cfile1 window

(Character parameter; queried)

Specify input filename for the time series (+ options) to list. The
valid input files are in FITS format using the BINTABLE extension.
Xronos tasks may read for each time series many consecutive input files
(up to 50). Additional flexibility is provided by "Input File Options"
which are used to perform algebraic operations on individual input
files (either on the 'times' or on the 'count' or 'count/s' values).
The "Input File Options" are also used to select columns and rows
within a FITS file. If the first character of the input string is `@`,
the rest of the string is taken to be a filename containing the list of
input files (see "Filelist").

List the header and all the data of myfile.lc > listdata cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" List the header and the data from row 100 to 300 of myfile.lc > listdata cfile1="muyfile.lc fr100 lr300" window="-" List the header and the data of myfile.lc using time window in mywindow.wi file > listdata cfile1="muyfile.lc fr100 lr300" window="mywindow.wi"

This task produces a power spectral density for one time series, plots
and outputs the results (in a FITS file). The power spectrum is
computed either by an FFT algorithm (`fast=yes`, the default) or a
slower direct Fourier algorithm (`fast=no`). The input file format is
FITS using the BINTABLE extension in either binned data or event
format. The power spectra from several intervals can be averaged in a
frame, and the results can be rebinned. The standard plot output is
power versus frequency.

When `outfiletype=2` (the default) the output file for the `powspec` task
contains in each extension the following columns: frequency, half
width frequency bin, power, error and the number of power spectrum
bins averaged in frequency (as result of rebinning) or in time (as
results of averaging intervals in frame). Not many applications can
currently deal with the output files produced when `outfiletype=1`.

Usage: powspec cfile1 window dtnb nbint nintfm rebin outfile plot plotdev

cfile1 - Ser. 1 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] window - Name of the window file ('-' for default window)[-] dtnb - Newbin Time or negative rebinning[] nbint - Number of Newbins/Interval[] nintfm - Number of Intervals/Frame[] rebin - Rebin results? (>1 const rebin, <-1 geom. rebin, 0 none)[0] outfile - Name of output file[default] plot - Do you want to plot your results?[yes] plotdev - Enter PGPLOT device[/XW]

The following parameters are used by `powspec`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat logname clobber dpath *cfile1 window dtnb nbint nintfm rebin nbdf itre itremo outfile outfileroot outfiletype plot plotdev plotfile gapfill forcestart *errorbars exposure *normalization spwinbefore spwinafter rescale offset *fast

(Character parameter; queried)

Specify input filename for the time series (+ options) to calculate a power
spectral density. The valid input files are in FITS format using the
BINTABLE extension. Xronos tasks may read for each time series many
consecutive input files (up to 50). Additional flexibility is provided
by "Input File Options" which are used to perform algebraic operations
on individual input files (either on the 'times' or on the 'count' or
'count/s' values). The "Input File Options" are also used to select
columns and rows within a FITS file. If the first character of the
input string is `@`, the rest of the string is taken to be a filename
containing the list of input files (see "Filelist").

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=5; range 1)

If the specified number of intervals per frame (`nintfm`) is greater
than or equal to the value of the `errorbars` parameter (default=5),
the error bars are calculated from the standard deviation of the
average of the power in each frequency bin from different intervals.
Otherwise, error bars are obtained by propagating the theoretical
errors bars associated with each power spectrum.

For example, if `errorbars` is 5 in `powspec`: (a) if a frame contains
the average fewer than 5 power spectra, then the error bars in the
average power spectrum will be calculated by propagating through the
average the theoretical error bars associated with each power spectrum
(in turn obtained from the relevant chi-square distribution); (b) if a
frame contains the average of 5 or more power spectra, then the error
bars in the average power spectrum will be calculated by evaluating the
standard deviation of the average power for each frequency. By
adjusting the value of `errorbars` it is possible, *e.g.* to evaluate
error bars as in (a), also in the case in which a large number of
intervals per frame has been specified. Values 5 are not recommended
(at least 5-6 measures are necessary to reliably evaluate the standard
deviation of the average from the scatter around it).

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=1)

`normalization` parameter has the following meanings (and values):

`=0`power spectra are normalised by dividing by the number of good newbins in each interval.`=1`(d/f); power spectra are normalised such that the (white) noise level expected from the data errors, corresponds to a power of 2 (note that a correction of the data errors for instrument dead time effect might be necessary to bring the expected noise level to 2)`=2`power spectra are normalised such that their integral gives the squared rms fractional variability (therefore the power spectrum is in units of (rms)**2/Hz). The expected (white) noise level must be subtracted to obtain the rms fractional variability of the series.`=-1`as`=1`, but the expected white noise level is subtracted`=-2`as`=2`, but the expected white noise level is subtracted

(Logical parameter; hidden; d/f=yes)

Sets the algorithm used for the Fourier transform. If yes (the
default), an FFT algorthim is used, otherwise a slower direct Fourier
calculation is performed. Note: if `fast=yes`, `nbint` must be a power
of 2 due to the use of the FFT algorithm.

From a time series of 10000 sec with a binning of 6.25e-2 seconds, calculate the power spectrum of 8192 points (equivalent to an interval in time of 512 seconds) and average every 5 intervals in one frame (4 frames in total). Apply no rebinning to the results, make a plot and output the results in a file. > powspec cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" dtnb=6.25e-2 nbint=8192 nintfm=5 rebin=0 plot=yes plotdev="/xw" outfile="-" Same as above but all the intervals are averaged in one frame. > powspec cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" dtnb=6.25e-2 nbint=8192 nintfm=INDEF rebin=0 plot=yes plotdev="/xw" outfile="-"

This task calculates a time skewness function for one time series, plots and outputs the results (in a FITS file). The time skewness is computed using a slow algorithm. The input file format is FITS using the BINTABLE extension in either binned data or event list format. The standard plot output is the time skewness function versus time delay.

When `outfiletype=2` (the default), the output file contains in each extension
the following columns: time delay, half width of time delay bin,
time skewness and error. Not many applications can currently deal
with the output files produced when `outfiletype=1`.

Usage: timeskew cfile1 window dtnb nbint nintfm rebin outfile plot plotdev

cfile1 - Ser. 1 filename +options (or @file of filenames +options)[] window - Name of the window file ('-' for default window)[-] dtnb - Newbin Time or negative rebinning[] nbint - Number of Newbins/Interval[] nintfm - Number of Intervals/Frame[] rebin - Rebin results? (>1 const rebin, <-1 geom. rebin, 0 none)[0] outfile - Name of output file[default] plot - Do you want to plot your results?[yes] plotdev - Enter PGPLOT device[/XW]

The following parameters are used by `timeskew`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat logname clobber dpath *cfile1 window dtnb nbint nintfm rebin nbdf itre itremo outfile outfileroot outfiletype plot plotdev plotfile gapfill forcestart *errorbars exposure *normalization spwinbefore spwinafter rescale offset

(Character parameter; queried)

Specify input filename for the time series (+ options) to calculate time
skewness function. The valid input files are in FITS format using the
BINTABLE extension. Xronos tasks may read for each time series many
consecutive input files (up to 50). Additional flexibility is provided
by "Input File Options" which are used to perform algebraic operations
on individual input files (either on the 'times' or on the 'count' or
'count/s' values). The "Input File Options" are also used to select
columns and rows within a FITS file. If the first character of the
input string is `@`, the rest of the string is taken to be a filename
containing the list of input files (see "Filelist").

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=5; range 1)

If the specified number of intervals per frame (`nintfm`) is greater
than or equal to the value of `errorbars` parameter (default=5), time
skewness error bars are calculated from the standard deviation of the
average of the time skewness in each time delay bin from different
intervals. Otherwise, error bars are obtained by propagating the
theoretical errors bars of the time skewness from individual intervals
(in turn obtained by propagating the newbin errors bars through the
time skewness formula).

(Integer parameter; hidden; d/f=1)

`normalization` parameter has the following meanings (and values):

`=0`time skewness is normalised by dividing by the number of good newbins in each interval.`=1`(d/f) time skewness is normalised by dividing by the number of good newbins and the third moment of newbins in each interval. No correction for the third moment due to Poisson statistics in newbins is calculated.

From a time series of 10000 sec with a binning of 6.25e-2 seconds, calculate the time skewness of 8192 points (equivalent to an interval in time of 512 seconds) and average every 5 intervals in one frame (4 frames in total). Apply no rebinning to the results, make a plot and output the results in a file. > timeskew cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" dtnb=6.25e-2 nbint=8192 nintfm=5 rebin=0 plot=yes plotdev="/xw" outfile="-" Same as above but all the intervals are averaged in one frame > timeskew cfile1="mydata.lc" window="-" dtnb=6.25e-2 nbint=8192 nintfm=INDEF rebin=0 plot=yes plotdev="/xw" outfile="-"

This task is a script which writes a new or modifies an existing XRONOS window file. XRONOS window files are ASCII files and contain values for the different type of windows and text. There are 4 types of windows in the XRONOS window file (See "Windows"):

- Time : consist of up to 1000 time intervals
- Phase : consist of an epoch, period and up to 10 phase intervals
- Intensity : consist of up to 10 intensity in bin, newbin and interval
- Exposure : consist of up to 1 exposure in bin, newbin and interval

When the script is invoked the following menu is displayed:

[T] Change TIME Windows [P] Change PHASE Windows [I] Change INTENSITY Windows [E] Change EXPOSURE Windows [R] READ an Input file [S] SHOW All Defined Windows [C] CLEAR All Defined Windows [W] WRITE Window file [Q] QUIT Window Program [DS] Define Series Number (Currently 1) [DB] Define Bin Type (Currently Orig. Bins) [DE] Define Epoch for Phase Windows (Currently Undefined) [DP] Define Period for Phase Windows (Currently Undefined) [DW] Copy Defined Windows from Series to Series Choose an action:

One of the actions in square brackets should be entered. The minimun
and maximum values of the Time [T], Phase [P], Intensity [I] and
Exposure [E] windows must always be given in increasing order. The
different types of window can be specified in any order, the script
will give the correct order in the output file. An epoch [DS] and a
period [DP] are required when phase windows are selected. If not
given, the script displays a warning message. Intensity and Exposure
windows can be specified independently for (i) Bins , (ii) New Bins ,
(iii) Intervals (XRONOS basic time entities), using the option
[DB]. When dealing with more than one time series, Intensity and
Exposure windows must be specified separately for each series, using
the option [DS] and/or using [DW] to copy the current exposure and
or intensity window from one time series to another. To read an
existent XRONOS window file use the the option [R]. Input files are
cumulative therefore many existent XRONOS window files can be read in
(via the [R] option) and further modified. All the windows read in,
for each type, are added (up to the maximun value allowed) with
exception of the Exposure windows for which only the last read or set
is accepted. Checking for overlapping windows is done only within the
Change options (*e.g.* [T], [P], [I], [E]). It is therefore recommended,
after reading many existing files, that users to check for conflicts
(and corrections) using the above options. Entering [S] gives an
overview of the current defined windows and after the selection is
completed the option [W] writes the XRONOS window file. The values for
the phase window range from 0 to 1. Exposure windows consist of a
minimum and a maximum exposure level. Units are such that 1 means 100%
exposure. The default values for the minimun exposure window in bin,
newbin and interval are set to 0.

Three formats for time are available to enter time windows:

1. day - enter one number (e.g. 123.524268391) 2. day sec - enter two numbers, the 2nd must contain a decimal point. (e.g. 123 45296.789) 3. day hr min sec msec - enter up to 5 numbers, the 5th may contain a decimal point. (e.g. 123 12 34 56 789)

The same rules apply for entering the Epoch for phase windows. Note that time windows and epoch values should be compatible with how XRONOS reconstructs the time. The time used within XRONOS tasks is Truncated Julian Days (TJD=JD-2440000.5) if either (1) the keyword MJDREF is present in the header of the files or (2) if the TIMESYS value is one of the following strings MJD or JD or TJD. If neither (1) or (2) are true, the times are given in days relative to the value found in the TIME column.

The following optional command line flags are available:

-h Get online help -i infile Name of the input window file. You may specify a window file containing some starting values that you wish to modify or add to. If you don't specify one, you will get the default values. -o outfile Output window file name. -v Verbose mode.

This task is a script which creates a lightcurve FITS file, suitable
for XRONOS, from an ASCII format file by calling the FTOOL task
`fcreate`. Different types of FITS lightcurve formats can be created
depending on the number of columns available in the ASCII file.

The input file is a free-format ASCII file. Each line of data corresponds to one row in the FITS table and should contain values for every column. Any line whose first non-whitespace character is not a digit will be treated as a comment. The script asks for the column number (in the ASCII file) of the following quantities: Time, Rate (or Counts), Errors and Fractional Exposure. Not all of them need to be present, only the Rate (or Count) with the Error (in the case of Count only if different from sqrt(Count)) columns are required. If the time column is not present, the input timing header keywords (see later) are sufficient for XRONOS to reconstruct the time for each bin. NOTE that undefined values in the data file (es. data gap) should be marked with "INDEF".

The script also asks for the following values: TIMEUNIT, TSTART, TSTOP, TIMEDEL and TIMEZERO. Those are the minimum required header keywords for the FITS lightcurve output. All the keywords should be entered in the same unit either days ('d') or seconds ('s'). The unit value is the input for TIMEUNIT. TSTART and TSTOP define the start and stop of the lightcurve and TIMEDEL the integration time. If the TIME column is not present in the ASCII, the script prompts for TIMEZERO which is a reference value, used within XRONOS to calculate the nth bin time. See also fcreate help.

The following optional command line flags are available:

-h Get online help -i infile[ext] Name of the input ASCII data file. -o outfile Output file FITS file name. -d Debug mode. Doesn't delete temporary files on exit.

This task is a script which dumps a FITS lightcurve or a XRONOS output
file into ASCII and adds header information suitable for QDP/PLT. The
output ASCII file contains: (1) the QDP/PLT command 'READ SERR',
followed by numbers indicating the vectors which have errors, (2) the
FITS header and GTI extension (if present in the input file) with an
'!' prepended to each line, and (3) columns of data representing the
X-axis and Y-axis (plus additional error columns and a fractional
exposure column, if selected from the input file). The script
recognizes two possible formats for the FITS lightcurve or XRONOS
output: data stored (a) as a single element or (b) as an array of
elements in column (Note only one dimension *e.g.* TDIMn= '(j)'). For
the format (a), all the rows in the table for a given column are moved
into the ASCII file, for (b), only one row (array type) is dumped into
an ASCII file. The script creates an X-axis if not present in the FITS
lightcurve or XRONOS output. For the format (b) the X-axis is derived
using the auxiliary coordinates column keywords (*e.g.* 1CTYPn, 1CVALn,
1CDLTn with n column number). Only if the X-axis is TIME for the format
(a), the X column in the ASCII file is derived from the timing header
keyword TIMEDEL.

The following optional command line flags are available:

-h Get online help -i infile[ext] Name of the input file. Extension may be specified with + or []. Default extension is 1. -o outfile Output file name. -q Spawn QDP on output file when finished. -r # For a "one interval per row" type input file, specifies which row number. -x column[,error] Column name for the X axis and (optional) X error column. (For no X column enter 0). -y column[,error] Column name for the Y axis and (optional) Y error column. -f column Column name for the fractional exposure (0 for none).

This task converts the "EXOSAT rate buffer" binary format in FITS format suitable for XRONOS. Currently only the rate buffer type 0 and 2 are implemented. The detectors information (the second rate buffer record) is translated in FITS header keywords for the ME, GSPC, CMA (1 and 2) and TGS (1 and 2) EXOSAT detectors.

Note: Rate buffer files are binary format files and are platform dependent.

Usage: rbf2fits infile outfile

infile - Input name rate buffer[] outfile - Output file[]

The following parameters are used by `rbf2fits`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat *infile *outfile

(Character parameter; queried)

Input filename for the rate buffer.

(Character parameter; queried)

Output filename for the FITS file. If the string is blank the default filename is set as the input file with extension ".lc"

This task corrects the arrival time of photons, assumed as tagged at Earth, for the time delay EARTH-SUN. No other corrections are applied, in particular it is not included the corrections for travel time from the satellite-earth or any spacecraft clock delay. This program uses the JPL DE200 ephemeris,given as FITS binary table (Standish,M.,1982 Astr. Ap.,114,297). The file validity is until 31 December 2050. The task takes as input only FITS file with binary table extension. The format of the FITS input file can contain many extensions. The task corrects the times only in one selected extension.The selected extension can be specified at the input level (see parameter input file). If the FITS file is an EVENT list the times in the EVENT and GTI extensions are corrected. A file is assumed an EVENT list if the EXTNAME and/or HDUCLAS1 keywords contain the string EVENT (or EVENTS). The column name containing the time values can be specified at input level (see parameter Column name). The default column name is TIME. The time values in the TIME column are expected to be either MJD (or TJD or JD) values (1) or residuals from a MJD reference time (2) given as header keyword. In the first case (the time column contains values written as a MJD or JD or TJD), the header keyword 'TIMESYS' is required, containing with one of the following values: MJD or JD or TJD. In the second case, the keyword 'MJDREF' (or 'MJDREFI', integer part, and 'MJDREFF' fractional part) should contain an MJD value. If MJDREF is not found and TIMESYS is not either MJD or JD or TJD the program gives a fatal error.

A GTI extension is expected in the file if the FITS file is an EVENT list, and it is identified if the either EXTNAME or HDUCLAS1 keyword contain the string GTI (or ALLGTI or STDGTI). The GTI extension format must have at least two columns named START and STOP and no other column named are searched and/or recognized. The task adds and/or replaces a number of header keywords. TIMREF is set to 'SOLARSYSTEM'. TSTART and TSTOP are set either to the first and last value in the TIME column or if an EVENT list to the first start GTI and last stop GTI.

Usage: earth2sun infile colnam outfile ra dec

infile - Name of input file[] colnam - Column name[TIME] outfile - Name of output file[] ra - RA in hh mm ss.s or degrees -- epoch 2000[0.0] dec - DEC in dd mm ss.s or degrees -- epoch 2000[0.0]

The following parameters are used by `earth2sun`. Parameters with
task-specific meaning are marked `*`. All others are
documented in "Common Parameters".

tchat lchat logname *infile *colnam *outfile *ra *dec *ephfile

(Character parameter; queried)

The name of the input file for which the correction is
needed. The extension can be specified either as "infile+`#`

"
or "infile[`#`

]" where `#`

is the extension number.

(Character parameter; queried; d/f="TIME")

The name of the column containing the times value. Default name is TIME.

(Character parameter; queried)

The name of the output file. Note in the output file all the extensions present in the input file are copied.

(Real parameter; queried)

The RA of the source (either in hh:mm:ss.s or deg) given in 2000.0 equinox.

(Real parameter; queried)

The Declination of the source (either in dd:mm:ss.s or deg) given in 2000.0 equinox.

(Real parameter; queried)

Name and path of the ephemeris file. Ephemeris valid until 31 December 2050