4.4 Support for Unsigned Integers and Signed Bytes

Although FITS does not directly support unsigned integers as one of its fundamental data types, FITS can still be used to efficiently store unsigned integer data values in images and binary tables. The convention used in FITS files is to store the unsigned integers as signed integers with an associated offset (specified by the BZERO or TZEROn keyword). For example, to store unsigned 16-bit integer values in a FITS image the image would be defined as a signed 16-bit integer (with BITPIX keyword = SHORT_IMG = 16) with the keywords BSCALE = 1.0 and BZERO = 32768. Thus the unsigned values of 0, 32768, and 65535, for example, are physically stored in the FITS image as -32768, 0, and 32767, respectively; CFITSIO automatically adds the BZERO offset to these values when they are read. Similarly, in the case of unsigned 32-bit integers the BITPIX keyword would be equal to LONG_IMG = 32 and BZERO would be equal to 2147483648 (i.e. 2 raised to the 31st power).

The CFITSIO interface routines will efficiently and transparently apply the appropriate offset in these cases so in general application programs do not need to be concerned with how the unsigned values are actually stored in the FITS file. As a convenience for users, CFITSIO has several predefined constants for the value of BITPIX (USHORT_IMG, ULONG_IMG, ULONGLONG_IMG) and for the TFORMn value in the case of binary tables (`U', `V', and `W') which programmers can use when creating FITS files containing unsigned integer values. The following code fragment illustrates how to write a FITS 1-D primary array of unsigned 16-bit integers:

      unsigned short uarray[100];
      int naxis, status;
      long naxes[10], group, firstelem, nelements;
      status = 0;
      naxis = 1;
      naxes[0] = 100;
      fits_create_img(fptr, USHORT_IMG, naxis, naxes, &status);

      firstelem = 1;
      nelements = 100;
      fits_write_img(fptr, TUSHORT, firstelem, nelements,
                          uarray, &status);
In the above example, the 2nd parameter in fits_create_img tells CFITSIO to write the header keywords appropriate for an array of 16-bit unsigned integers (i.e., BITPIX = 16 and BZERO = 32768). Then the fits_write_img routine writes the array of unsigned short integers (uarray) into the primary array of the FITS file. Similarly, a 32-bit unsigned integer image may be created by setting the second parameter in fits_create_img equal to `ULONG_IMG' and by calling the fits_write_img routine with the second parameter = TULONG to write the array of unsigned long image pixel values.

An analogous set of routines are available for reading or writing unsigned integer values and signed byte values in a FITS binary table extension. When specifying the TFORMn keyword value which defines the format of a column, CFITSIO recognizes 4 additional data type codes besides those already defined in the FITS standard: `U' meaning a 16-bit unsigned integer column, `V' for a 32-bit unsigned integer column, `W' for a 64-bit unsigned integer column, and 'S' for a signed byte column. These non-standard data type codes are not actually written into the FITS file but instead are just used internally within CFITSIO. The following code fragment illustrates how to use these features:

      unsigned short uarray[100];
      unsigned int  varray[100];

      int colnum, tfields, status;
      long nrows, firstrow, firstelem, nelements, pcount;

      char extname[] = "Test_table";           /* extension name */

      /* define the name, data type, and physical units for 4 columns */
      char *ttype[] = { "Col_1", "Col_2", "Col_3", "Col_4" };
      char *tform[] = { "1U",      "1V",    "1W",    "1S"};  /* special CFITSIO codes */
      char *tunit[] = { " ",        " ",    " ",    " " };

           /* write the header keywords */
      status  = 0;
      nrows   = 1;
      tfields = 3
      pcount  = 0;
      fits_create_tbl(fptr, BINARY_TBL, nrows, tfields, ttype, tform,
                tunit, extname, &status);

           /* write the unsigned shorts to the 1st column */
      colnum    = 1;
      firstrow  = 1;
      firstelem = 1;
      nelements = 100;
      fits_write_col(fptr, TUSHORT, colnum, firstrow, firstelem,
              nelements, uarray, &status);

           /* now write the unsigned longs to the 2nd column */
      colnum    = 2;
      fits_write_col(fptr, TUINT, colnum, firstrow, firstelem,
              nelements, varray, &status);
Note that the non-standard TFORM values for the 3 columns, `U', `V', and `W' tell CFITSIO to write the keywords appropriate for unsigned 16-bit, unsigned 32-bit and unsigned 64-bit integers, respectively (i.e., TFORMn = '1I' and TZEROn = 32768 for unsigned 16-bit integers, TFORMn = '1J' and TZEROn = 2147483648 for unsigned 32-bit integers, and TFORMn = '1K' and TZEROn = 9223372036854775808 for unsigned 64-bit integers). The 'S' TFORMn value tells CFITSIO to write the keywords appropriate for a signed 8-bit byte column with TFORMn = '1B' and TZEROn = -128. The calls to fits_write_col then write the arrays of unsigned integer values to the columns.