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4.10 Variable-Length Arrays in Binary Tables

CFITSIO provides easy-to-use support for reading and writing data in variable length fields of a binary table. The variable length columns have TFORMn keyword values of the form `1Pt(len)' or `1Qt(len)' where `t' is the data type code (e.g., I, J, E, D, etc.) and `len' is an integer specifying the maximum length of the vector in the table. The 'P' type variable length columns use 32-bit array length and byte offset values, whereas the 'Q' type columns use 64-bit values, which may be required when dealing with large arrays. CFITSIO supports a local convention that interprets the 'P' type descriptors as unsigned 32-bit integers, which provides a factor of 2 greater range for the array length or heap address than is possible with 32-bit 'signed' integers. Note, however, that other software packages may not support this convention, and may be unable to read thees extended range variable length records.

If the value of `len' is not specified when the table is created (e.g., if the TFORM keyword value is simply specified as '1PE' instead of '1PE(400) ), then CFITSIO will automatically scan the table when it is closed to determine the maximum length of the vector and will append this value to the TFORMn value.

The same routines that read and write data in an ordinary fixed length binary table extension are also used for variable length fields, however, the routine parameters take on a slightly different interpretation as described below.

All the data in a variable length field is written into an area called the `heap' which follows the main fixed-length FITS binary table. The size of the heap, in bytes, is specified by the PCOUNT keyword in the FITS header. When creating a new binary table, the initial value of PCOUNT should usually be set to zero. CFITSIO will recompute the size of the heap as the data is written and will automatically update the PCOUNT keyword value when the table is closed. When writing variable length data to a table, CFITSIO will automatically extend the size of the heap area if necessary, so that any following HDUs do not get overwritten.

By default the heap data area starts immediately after the last row of the fixed-length table. This default starting location may be overridden by the THEAP keyword, but this is not recommended. If additional rows of data are added to the table, CFITSIO will automatically shift the the heap down to make room for the new rows, but it is obviously be more efficient to initially create the table with the necessary number of blank rows, so that the heap does not needed to be constantly moved.

When writing row of data to a variable length field the entire array of values for a given row of the table must be written with a single call to fits_write_col. The total length of the array is given by nelements + firstelem - 1. Additional elements cannot be appended to an existing vector at a later time since any attempt to do so will simply overwrite all the previously written data and the new data will be written to a new area of the heap. The fits_compress_heap routine is provided to compress the heap and recover any unused space. To avoid having to deal with this issue, it is recommended that rows in a variable length field should only be written once. An exception to this general rule occurs when setting elements of an array as undefined. It is allowed to first write a dummy value into the array with fits_write_col, and then call fits_write_col_nul to flag the desired elements as undefined. Note that the rows of a table, whether fixed or variable length, do not have to be written consecutively and may be written in any order.

When writing to a variable length ASCII character field (e.g., TFORM = '1PA') only a single character string can be written. The `firstelem' and `nelements' parameter values in the fits_write_col routine are ignored and the number of characters to write is simply determined by the length of the input null-terminated character string.

The fits_write_descript routine is useful in situations where multiple rows of a variable length column have the identical array of values. One can simply write the array once for the first row, and then use fits_write_descript to write the same descriptor values into the other rows; all the rows will then point to the same storage location thus saving disk space.

When reading from a variable length array field one can only read as many elements as actually exist in that row of the table; reading does not automatically continue with the next row of the table as occurs when reading an ordinary fixed length table field. Attempts to read more than this will cause an error status to be returned. One can determine the number of elements in each row of a variable column with the fits_read_descript routine.

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