Browse
this table...

PCCS545GHZ - Planck Catalog of 545-GHz Compact Sources (PCCS) Release 2

HEASARC
Archive

Overview

Planck was a European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with significant contributions from the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). It was the third generation of space-based cosmic microwave background experiments, after the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Planck was launched on 14 May 2009 on an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana. Following a cruise to the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point, cooling and in orbit checkout, Planck initiated the First Light Survey on 12 August 2009. Planck then continuously measured the intensity of the sky over a range of frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz (wavelengths of 1 cm to 350 micron) with spatial resolutions ranging from about 33 to 5 arcminutes, respectively. The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on Planck provided temperature and polarization information using radiometers which operated between 30 and 70 GHz. The High Frequency Instrument (HFI) used pairs of polarization-sensitive bolometers at each of four frequencies between 100 and 353 GHz but did not measure polarization information in the two upper HFI bands at 545 and 857 GHz. The lowest Planck frequencies overlapped with WMAP, and the highest frequencies extended far into the submillimeter in order to improve separation between Galactic foregrounds and the cosmic microwave background (CMB). By extending to wavelengths longer than those at which the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) operated, Planck provided an unprecedented window into dust emission at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths.

The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources is a list of discrete objects detected in single-frequency maps from the full duration of the Planck mission and supersedes previous versions. It consists of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. Compact sources detected in the lower frequency channels are assigned to the PCCS2, while at higher frequencies they are assigned to one of two subcatalogs, the PCCS2 or PCCS2E, depending on their location on the sky. The first of these (PCCS2) covers most of the sky and allows the user to produce subsamples at higher reliabilities than the target 80% integral reliability of the catalog. The second (PCCS2E) contains sources detected in sky regions where the diffuse emission makes it difficult to quantify the reliability of the detections. Both the PCCS2 and PCCS2E include polarization measurements, in the form of polarized flux densities, or upper limits, and orientation angles for all seven polarization-sensitive Planck channels. The improved data-processing of the full-mission maps and their reduced noise levels allow the authors to increase the number of objects in the catalog, improving its completeness for the target 80% reliability as compared with the previous versions, the PCCS and the Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC).

The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) Data Processing Center (DPC) produced the 30, 44, and 70 GHz maps after the completion of eight full surveys (spanning the period from 12 August 2009 to 3 August 2013). In addition, special LFI maps covering the period 1 April 2013 to 30 June 2013 were produced in order to compare the Planck flux-density scales with those of the Very Large Array and the Australia Telescope Compact Array, by performing simultaneous observations of a sample of sources over that period. The High Frequency Instrument (HFI) DPC produced the 100-, 143-, 217-, 353-, 545-, and 857-GHz maps after five full surveys (from 2009 August 12 to 2012 January 11).

As in the PCCS, the PCCS2 provides four different measures of the flux density for each source. They are determined by the source detection algorithm (DETFLUX), aperture photometry (APERFLUX), point spread function fitting (PSFFLUX), and Gaussian fitting (GAUFLUX). Only the first is obtained from the filtered maps; the other measures are estimated from the full-sky maps at the positions of the sources. The source detection algorithm photometry, the aperture photometry, and the point spread function (PSF) fitting use the Planck band-average effective beams, calculated with FEBeCoP (Fast Effective Beam Convolution in Pixel space). Note that only the PSF fitting algorithm takes into account the variation of the PSF with position on the sky. The PCCS2 has been produced from the Planck full-mission maps (eight sky surveys in the LFI and five sky surveys in the HFI), and therefore supersedes the previous catalogs (for the PCCS only 1.5 surveys were analyzed). It also includes the latest calibration and beam information, and the authors have improved some of the algorithms used to measure the photometry of the sources.

This table contains the PCCS Public Release 2 table of sources detected at 545 GHz. Where the HEASARC parameter names differ from those used in the original table, the original names are listed parenthetically in upper case at the end of the parameter description.


Catalog Bibcode

2016A&A...594A..26P

References

Planck 2015 results. XXVI. The Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources.
    Planck collaboration
    Ade P.A.R., Aghanim N., Argueso F., Arnaud M., Ashdown M., Aumont J.,
    Baccigalupi C., Banday A.J., Barreiro R.B., Bartolo N., Battaner E.,
    Beichman C., Benabed K., Benoit A., Benoit-Levy A., Bernard J.-P.,
    Bersanelli M., Bielewicz P., Bock J.J., Bohringer H., Bonaldi A.,
    Bonavera L., Bond J.R., Borrill J., Bouchet F.R., Boulanger F., Bucher M.,
    Burigana C., Butler R.C., Calabrese E., Cardoso J.-F., Carvalho P.,
    Catalano A., Challinor A., Chamballu A., Chary R.-R., Chiang H.C.,
    Christensen P.R., Clemens M., Clements D.L., Colombi S., Colombo L.P.L.,
    Combet C., Couchot F., Coulais A., Crill B.P., Curto A., Cuttaia F.,
    Danese L., Davies R.D., Davis R.J., De Bernardis P., De Rosa A.,
    De Zotti G., Delabrouille J., Desert F.-X., Dickinson C., Diego J.M.,
    Dole H., Donzelli S., Dore O., Douspis M., Ducout A., Dupac X.,
    Efstathiou G., Elsner F., Ensslin T.A., Eriksen H.K., Falgarone E.,
    Fergusson J., Finelli F., Forni O., Frailis M., Fraisse A.A.,
    Franceschi E., Frejsel A., Galeotta S., Galli S., Ganga K., Giard M.,
    Giraud-Heraud Y., Gjerlow E., Gonzalez-Nuevo J., Gorski K.M., Gratton S.,
    Gregorio A., Gruppuso A., Gudmundsson J.E., Hansen F.K., Hanson D.,
    Harrison D.L., Helou G., Henrot-Versille S., Hernandez-Monteagudo C.,
    Herranz D., Hildebrandt S.R., Hivon E., Hobson M., Holmes W.A.,
    Hornstrup A., Hovest W., Huffenberger K.M., Hurier G., Jaffe A.H.,
    Jaffe T.R., Jones W.C., Juvela M., Keihanen E., Keskitalo R., Kisner T.S.,
    Kneissl R., Knoche J., Kunz M., Kurki-Suonio H., Lagache G.,
    Lahteenmaki A., Lamarre J.-M., Lasenby A., Lattanzi M., Lawrence C.R.,
    Leahy J.P., Leonardi R., Leon-Tavares J., Lesgourgues J., Levrier F.,
    Liguori M., Lilje P.B., Linden-Vornle M., Lopez-Caniego M., Lubin P.M.,
    Macias-Perez J.F., Maggio G., Maino D., Mandolesi N., Mangilli A.,
    Maris M., Marshall D.J., Martin P.G., Martinez-Gonzalez E., Masi S.,
    Matarrese S., Mcgehee P., Meinhold P.R., Melchiorri A., Mendes L.,
    Mennella A., Migliaccio M., Mitra S., Miville-Deschenes M.-A., Moneti A.,
    Montier L., Morgante G., Mortlock D., Moss A., Munshi D., Murphy J.A.,
    Naselsky P., Nati F., Natoli P., Negrello M., Netterfield C.B.,
    Norgaard-Nielsen H.U., Noviello F., Novikov D., Novikov I., Oxborrow C.A.,
    Paci F., Pagano L., Pajot F., Paladini R., Paoletti D., Partridge B.,
    Pasian F., Patanchon G., Pearson T.J., Perdereau O., Perotto L.,
    Perrotta F., Pettorino V., Piacentini F., Piat M., Pierpaoli E.,
    Pietrobon D., Plaszczynski S., Pointecouteau E., Polenta G., Pratt G.W.,
    Prezeau G., Prunet S., Puget J.-L., Rachen J.P., Reach W.T., Rebolo R.,
    Reinecke M., Remazeilles M., Renault C., Renzi A., Ristorcelli I.,
    Rocha G., Rosset C., Rossetti M., Roudier G., Rowan-Robinson M.,
    Rubino-Martin J.A., Rusholme B., Sandri M., Sanghera H.S., Santos D.,
    Savelainen M., Savini G., Scott D., Seiffert M.D., Shellard E.P.S.,
    Spencer L.D., Stolyarov V., Sudiwala R., Sunyaev R., Sutton D.,
    Suur-Uski A.-S., Sygnet J.-F., Tauber J.A., Terenzi L., Toffolatti L.,
    Tomasi M., Tornikoski M., Tristram M., Tucci M., Tuovinen J., Turler M.,
    Umana G., Valenziano L., Valiviita J., Van Tent B., Vielva P., Villa F.,
    Wade L.A., Walter B., Wandelt B.D., Wehus I.K., Yvon D., Zacchei A.,
    Zonca A.
   <Astron. Astrophys., 594, A26 (2016)>
   =2016A&A...594A..26P    (SIMBAD/NED BibCode)

Provenance

This table was created by the HEASARC in May 2017 based upon the CDS Catalog J/A+A/594/A26 file pccs545.dat.

Parameters

Name
The full name by which it is recommended to designate a source in this table, 'PCCS2 xxx GLLL.ll+BB.bb', where PCCS2 stands for 'Planck Compact Source Catalogue, public release 2', 'xxx' is the frequency in this GHz ('545' for this table of 545-GHz sources), and 'GLLL.ll+BB.bb' is the Galactic position of the source.

RA
The Right Ascension of the source in the selected equinox obtained from the extraction algorithm. This was given in J2000.0 decimal degrees to a precision of 10-7 degrees in the original table.

Dec
The Declination of the source in the selected equinox obtained from the extraction algorithm. This was given in J2000.0 decimal degrees to a precision of 10-7 degrees in the original table.

LII
The Galactic Longitude of the source.

BII
The Galactic Latitude of the source.

Det_Flux
The flux density of the source determined by the detection pipeline photometry, in mJy. As described in Section 2.4 of the reference paper, the detection pipelines assume that sources are point-like. The amplitude of the detected source is converted to flux density using the solid angle of the effective beam (see Table 2 of the reference paper) and the conversion from map units into intensity units. If a source is resolved by Planck, its flux density will be underestimated. In this case it may be better to use the gau_flux (GAUFLUX) estimation. (DETFLUX)

Det_Flux_Error
The 1-sigma uncertainty in the flux of the source determined by the detection pipeline photometry, in mJy. The uncertainty in the flux density for each source is measured as the local noise in an annulus around the source in the Mexican Hat Wavelet 2 algorithm (MHW2) filtered map, where bright pixels belonging to other compact sources in the vicinity, if any, are excluded from the calculation. (DETFLUX_ERR)

Flux
The flux density of the source determined by aperture photometry, in mJy. This is estimated by integrating the data in a circular aperture centered at the position of the source. An annulus around the aperture is used to evaluate the level of the background. The annulus is also used to make a local estimate of the noise to calculate the uncertainty in the estimate of the flux density. The flux density is corrected for the fraction of the beam solid angle falling outside the aperture and for the fraction of the beam solid angle falling in the annulus. The aperture photometry was computed using an aperture with radius equal to the average FWHM of the effective beam (the effective FWHM listed in Table 2 of the reference paper), and an annulus with an inner radius of 1 FWHM and an outer radius of 2 * FWHM. The effective beams, also given in Table 2 of the reference paper) were used to compute the beam solid angle corrections. (APERFLUX)

Flux_Error
The 1-sigma uncertainty in the flux of the source determined by aperture photometry, in mJy. (APERFLUX_ERR)

PSF_Flux
The flux density of the source determined by PSF fitting, in mJy. This is obtained by fitting a model of the PSF at the position of the source to the data. The model has four free parameters: the amplitude of the source; a background offset; and two coordinates for the location of the source. The PSF is obtained from the effective beam by means of a bicubic spline interpolation for source positions that are different from the center of a pixel. Note that the PSF fitting now includes subpixel positioning, which is a new feature introduced after the production of the PCCS. For details, see Appendix A of the reference paper. (PSFFLUX)

PSF_Flux_Error
The 1-sigma uncertainty in the flux of the source determined by PSF fitting, in mJy. (PSFFLUX_ERR)

Gau_Flux
The flux density of the source obtained by fitting a 2-dimensional Gaussian model to the source, in mJy. The approach to Gaussian fitting has been completely revised since the PCCS. The PCCS2 algorithm now allows the position of the source to vary as the best fit is found. The same parameters are returned for each source: its flux density; the major and minor semi-axes; and an orientation angle. Additionally, as in the PCCS, the semi-axis values are used in the construction of the flag for extended sources. For details, see Section 2.4 and Appendix B of the reference paper. (GAUFLUX)

Gau_Flux_Error
The 1-sigma uncertainty in the flux of the source determined by fitting a 2-dimensional Gaussian model, in mJy. (GAUFLUX_ERR)

Gau_Semimajor_Axis
The semi-major axis of the 2-dimensional Gaussian model fit to the source, in arcminutes (GAU_SEMI1)

Gau_Semimajor_Axis_Error
The 1-sigma uncertainty in the semi-major axis of the 2-dimensional Gaussian model fit to the source, in arcminutes (GAU_SEMI1_ERR)

Gau_Semiminor_Axis
The semi-minor axis of the 2-dimensional Gaussian model fit to the source, in arcminutes. (GAU_SEMI2)

Gau_Semiminor_Axis_Error
The 1-sigma uncertainty in the semi-minor axis of the 2-dimensional Gaussian model fit to the source, in arcminutes. (GAU_SEMI2_ERR)

Gau_Position_Angle
The orientation of the major axis of the 2-dimensional Gaussian model fit to the source, in degrees, measured Eastwards from the North Galactic direction. (GAU_THETA)

Gau_Position_Angle_Error
The 1-sigma uncertainty in the orientation of the major axis of the 2-dimensional Gaussian model fit to the source, in degrees. (GAU_THETA_ERR)

Gau_Eff_FWHM
The effective FWHM of the source from the Gaussian fit, FWHMeff, in arcminutes. This is calculated as the geometric mean (the square root of the product) of the major and minor axes of the 2D Gaussian model fit to the source. (GAU_FWHM_EFF)

Extent_Flag
This flag parameter indicates if the source is considered to be extended (1) or point-like (0). The source size is determined by the geometric mean of the Gaussian fit FWHMs, with the criterion for extension being sqrt(GAU_FWHMMAJ * GAU_FWHMIN) > 1.5 times the beam FWHM. (EXTENDED)

External_Validation_Flag
This flag parameter gives the status of the inter-channel and external validation. The possible values are as follows:

     3 = The source has a clear counterpart in one of the catalogs used as
          ancillary data;
     2 = The source does not have a clear counterpart in one of the catalogs
          used as ancillary data but it has been detected by the internal
          multi-frequency method;
     1 = The source does not have a clear counterpart in one of the catalogs
          used as ancillary data and it has not been detected by the internal
          multi-frequency method, but it has been detected in a previous Planck
          source catalog;
     0 = The source does not have a clear counterpart in one of the catalogs
          used as ancillary data and it has not been detected by the internal
          multi-frequency method.
  
(EXT_VAL)

Planck_ERC_Name
This parameter, if populated, indicates that there is a positional coincidence identification with a previous Planck catalog, the Early Release Compact Source Catalog (ERCSC), and gives the name of the ERCSC counterpart in this channel. (ERCSC)

PCCS1_Name
This parameter, if populated, indicates that there is a positional coincidence identification with a previous Planck catalog, the First Release of the Planck Compact Source Catalog (PCCS1), and gives the name of the PCCS1 counterpart in this channel. (PCCS1)

Highest_Reliability_Cat
This parameter contains the value (in percent) of the highest reliability for the source in whichever PCCS2 catalog to which the source belongs. As the full catalog reliability is >= 80%, this value is the lowest possible value for this parameter. Where possible, it is provided in steps of 1% otherwise it is in steps of 5%.

Cirrus_Number
The number of sources detected at 857 GHz (using a uniform S/N threshold of 5) within a 1-degree radius of the source, an indicator of the prevalence of cirrus in its vicinity. A fraction of the sources detected in the upper HFI bands could be associated with Galactic interstellar medium features or cirrus. This parameter is defined as in PCCS; see Section 5.2 of the reference paper for more details. (CIRRUS_N)

Sky_Brightness
The mean 857-GHz sky brightness within a 2-degree radius of the source: this may be used as another indicator of possible cirrus contamination; see Section 5.2 of the reference paper for more details.


Contact Person

Questions regarding the PCCS545GHZ database table can be addressed to the HEASARC User Hotline.
Page Author: Browse Software Development Team
Last Modified: Thursday, 01-Jun-2017 14:55:21 EDT