BASIC INSTRUCTIONS

Utilizing ARK, the Astrophysics Research Knowledgebase, a service of NASA's High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center, RPS provides a facility for filling out the NuSTAR proposal forms, as part of the ROSES NRA. Electronic submission of the proposal forms is required. The anonymized scientific/technical justification must be submitted electronically, uploaded as a PDF file after the initial submission of the electronic proposal forms. A one-page "team expertise and resources" (not anonymized) PDF also will need to be uploaded. Please note that each of these PDFs cannot exceed 10 MB in size and each have specified page limits.

NuSTAR Cycle 7 proposals must follow the Guidelines for Anonymous Proposals for dual-anonymous peer review. (Note that, for NuSTAR proposals, the page limit for the team expertise document is one page, i.e. further constrained compared to "no more than three pages" from the general guidelines document.) Proposers should fill in all required information on the forms, as detailed below. Fields should not contain personally identifying information. If a field does, NASA will have to redact it from the information provided to reviewers. Your abstract, the contents of all other RPS form fields (except those specifically for names and institutions), and your justification PDF should not include language that identifies the names of investigators or their institutions.

In order to access the NuSTAR RPS web form, you must first create an ARK account and/or join the NUSTAR group.

If you already have an ARK account, login first and select "Join Group" from the menu next to "NuSTAR RPS (NUSTAR)" and then click on the Submit Changes button.

If you do not already have an ARK account, enter your e-mail address in the input field provided and click on the checkbox next to "NuSTAR RPS (NUSTAR)" and then click on the Join ARK button. Check your e-mail and follow the registration URL found therein. Fill out the ARK registration form and submit.

Next, proceed to the NuSTAR RPS web form and fill out the form as directed below. Targets can be added at the end of the form or by clicking the Add Targets button at the top or bottom of the page. The Add Targets button can be used to add blank targets or to upload a plain text file containing a list of target names and/or positions. Please note that this latter method will only fill in the fields for the target name and pointing position; you will still need to enter other information (observation time, expected rates, constraints, etc.) for each target using the web interface. Alternatively, after adding some targets, you can use the Save button to download a plain text representation of the RPS form, which you can edit in your favorite text editor and then Reload into ARK. Note that the file format used by the Reload mechanism is the same as the format of the files generated by the Save button.

After you have filled out the form, click the Verify button to make sure you have entered the form information correctly. If the form does not validate, ARK/RPS will identify the reason(s) why it did not, which you will need to correct. Once the form verifies successfully, a Submit button will appear, allowing you to you to submit the proposal to RPS. Note that you must Verify successfully before the Submit button will be revealed and you must use the Submit to submit your proposal.

The PostScript, PDF, and LaTeX buttons can be used to generate formatted versions of the proposal forms. We recommend that PIs keep formatted copies of the forms for their personal records, but it is not a required part of the proposal submission process.

After clicking on the Submit button, go to your Recent Activity page. Summary information for the proposal that you just submitted should be listed here, indicating that you have successfully submitted your NuSTAR proposal forms to ARK/RPS. You may now upload your scientific/technical justification (anonymized) and your team expertise and resources (not anonymized) documents in PDF format. From the Recent Activity page, click on the Files button next to the proposal you submitted, and then click on the Upload button and follow the instructions on that page. After you have successfully uploaded both of those files required for your proposal, you will have completed your RPS electronic submission.

Note: After submission and before the proposal deadline, you may still Modify or Discard your proposal using the appropriate buttons on the Recent Activity page. The Files button also enables you to Download, Discard, or Replace any file that you previously uploaded.

Additional information on how to use RPS and the answers to some frequently asked questions can be found on the RPS Quick Help page.

Short descriptions of the forms and fields are below. The fields are listed in the same order as found on the web page. The labels for the fields in the web form will link to the appropriate field description below.

FORM/FIELD-SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS

Cover Page

This section contains fields for the proposal title, the type of proposal, the proposal abstract, and information about the Principal Investigator of the proposal, such as name, institution, address, telephone number, etc.

Proposal Type

Select the type of proposal, either Regular or Large. The total observation time for all targets in your proposal must be greater than or equal to 500 ksec for Large to be valid. For a Target of Opportunity (ToO) proposal, the value of the Maximum Total Time Requested for ToOs field must be greater than 500 ksec for it to be a Large program. A single-trigger ToO may be proposed as part of a Large program (e.g., where a long observation is needed after the initial trigger). There are 2000 ksec of observation time available for Large programs and 6500 ksec of observation time available for Regular programs. Large proposals may have an additional page of text to describe the proposed program in the scientific justification PDF.

Proposal Title

The title of the proposal. Up to 120 characters are allowed. Required.

Abstract

800 characters maximum. Abstracts exceeding this limit will cause an error and must be shortened. Please do not use special characters or LaTeX markup in the abstract. In accordance with the Guidelines for Anonymous Proposals for dual-anonymous peer review, the abstract should not include language that identifies the names of investigators or their institutions. Required.

Joint Proposal?

It is possible to propose for XMM-Newton and/or Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory and/or NICER observations in the NuSTAR Guest Observer cycle through joint programs with these other observatories. Such a joint proposal must include a NuSTAR component. Mark the desired Yes checkboxes if XMM-Newton and/or Swift and/or NICER observation times are requested for any of the proposed targets. If Yes is checked for any of the missions listed here, then you must specify the preferred XMM-Newton/Swift/NICER exposure times and a summary of relevant observation details for each target in the proposal in the individual target form(s). Targets of Opportunity (ToOs) may be proposed for joint proposals. Joint proposals may be multi-cycle with exception of for NICER.

Note: Proposers should fill out the Coordinated Observation? section with information about the coordination between NuSTAR and any other selected joint program observatories, if desired.

Waive Exclusive Data Use Period?

Specify Yes by marking the checkbox if you waive the exclusive data use period for the data from your proposal's observations. This is entirely optional, and the default is No. Data from approved standard-mode GO and Large proposal observations will have a nominal one-year exclusive-use period commencing at the time of the availability of the processed data to the observer. Data from approved ToO observations will have a corresponding six-month exclusive-use period. Please review the NuSTAR element in the ROSES NRA for more information.

Multi-Cycle Proposal?

Specify Yes by marking the checkbox if any of the NuSTAR observations proposed extend beyond the end of the upcoming cycle. Multi-cycle proposals cannot last more than two cycles and must be strongly justified in the scientific justification PDF.

Multi-Cycle Comments

This field is always optional. It can only be filled in if you checked Yes for the Multi-Cycle Proposal? question. The limit is 250 characters. Enter any general comments you have regarding your multi-cycle proposal. This is not where you justify your proposal being multi-cycle. (That goes in your scientific justification PDF.) Also, target-specific comments should be entered in the Other Remarks field for the appropriate target.

Maximum Total Time Requested for Target(s) of Opportunity

Only fill in this field if this is a Target(s) of Opportunity (ToO) proposal. If it is, you must specify the maximum time requested in kiloseconds. The value should be a sum of the Total Observation Time values for a subset of your targets or all of your targets, based on the number of ToOs you want to trigger.

Example #1: Suppose you have three Targets of Opportunity of 25 ksec each (i.e., you have completed three target forms), but you only need two of them to be observed, you should specify 50 ksec for this field.

Example #2: If you have four Targets of Opportunity of 30 ksec each (i.e., you have completed four target forms) and you want all four of them to be observed, then you should specify 120 ksec for this field.

Example #3: If you have a Target of Opportunity observation of 20 ksec that you want to repeat three times for the same source or for a source from the same source list (i.e., for which you want to ask for three triggers), please submit three target forms and specify 60 ksec for this field.

Example #4: If you have a Target of Opportunity observation with an initial trigger of 20 ksec and follow-up observations of 550 ksec you should specify 570 ksec for this field — which means it is a Large program. In this scenario, you should submit only one target form and use the fields ToO Initial Exposure, Number of Observations, and Monitoring Criteria to define the program. Remember that only one trigger request, i.e., one target form, should be submitted for a Large ToO program.

Principal Investigator Title

Your title (Dr., Ms., Mr., Prof.). The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

First Name

Your first name. Up to 30 characters are allowed. Required. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

Middle Name or Initial

If you like, you may add your middle name or initial(s). Optional. Up to 30 characters are allowed. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

Last Name

Your last name (surname). Up to 30 characters are allowed. Required. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

Department

The name of your department at your institution. Up to 60 characters are allowed. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

Institution

Your institutional affiliation. Required. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

Address 1

The first line of your institution's address, e.g., the street name, any number within it, etc. Up to 60 characters. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

Address 2

The second line of your institution's address, if needed. Up to 60 characters. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

City/Town

Your city or town. Up to 32 characters. Required. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

State/Province

The name of the state/province/prefecture in which your institution is located. Up to 30 characters. Required. For states in the U.S., please use USPS-standard, two-letter abbreviations. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

Zip/Postal Code

The postal code, ZIP code, or the equivalent of your institution. Up to 10 characters. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

Country

The name of the country in which your institution is located. Required. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission. If your country is not listed, please contact the RPS Help Desk. Note: Bilateral collaborations between scientists affiliated with institutions from the USA and the People's Republic of China (PRC) are not allowed by United States Federal law. Multilateral collaborations that involve scientists from institutions in the USA, the PRC, and other countries are allowed, however. Refer to the PRC FAQ for ROSES for details.

Telephone Number

Your telephone number, plus any extension. Please include the international prefix, if appropriate. Up to 24 characters allowed. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

Fax Number

Your fax number, if available. 24 characters allowed. The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

E-mail Address

Your e-mail address. Up to 60 characters. Required. If the e-mail receipt option is checked in your ARK user profile, an e-mail receipt will be sent to this address within 24 hours of the electronic submission of your proposal (usually much sooner). The value for this field comes from your ARK user profile. If it is incorrect, update your ARK user profile prior to proposal submission.

General Form

This section contains fields for details about your collaborators, if any, and additional contact information. Up to 15 Co-Investigators can be specified. Do not list Co-Investigators beyond number 15 in any comment fields of the forms, please, but provide their information in the team expertise document.

Co-Investigator First Name

The first name of each Co-Investigator. Up to 20 characters.

Co-Investigator Last Name

The last name of each Co-Investigator. Up to 20 characters.

Co-Investigator Institution

The institution for each Co-Investigator. Up to 60 characters. Please refer to the List of Institutions Recognized by RPS and use the official name of the institution wherever possible. Note: If your Co-I's institution is not among those listed, please contact the RPS Help Desk and request that it be added to the list. Such requests are typically answered within 24 hours, excluding weekends and U.S. Federal holidays.

Co-Investigator Country

The country for each Co-Investigator. If a country is not listed, please contact us at the RPS Help Desk and request that it be added to the list. Note: Bilateral collaborations between scientists affiliated with institutions from the USA and the People's Republic of China (PRC) are not allowed by United States Federal law. Multilateral collaborations that involve scientists from institutions in the USA, the PRC, and other countries are allowed, however. Refer to the PRC FAQ for ROSES for details.

Co-Investigator E-mail Address

The e-mail address for each Co-Investigator. Up to 60 characters.

Contact First Co-Investigator Listed Above?

This checkbox is used to indicate whether or not the first Co-Investigator listed is also a contact person in cases where the Principal Investigator cannot be reached. The default is to contact only the Principal Investigator.

Telephone Number of First Co-Investigator

Telephone number of the Co-Investigator that should be contacted. Up to 24 characters. Be sure to include the international code if outside the United States. Only enter a value for this field if you specify that the first Co-Investigator should be contacted.

Target Form(s)

This section contains all of the details regarding how each different target should be observed.

Target Name

The commonly accepted name for the object. Up to 20 characters. Please use standard names for known targets (e.g., NGC 2237 or Eta Car). Required.

Target Category

Specify one of the following categories that best describes this target. Required.
     Solar System Objects
     Galactic Compact Objects
     Non-ToO Supernovae, Supernova Remnants, and Diffuse Galactic Emissions
     Normal Galaxies
     Active Galaxies and Quasars
     Galaxy Clusters and Extragalactic Diffuse Objects

Notes: For stars please use the "Galactic Compact Objects" category. For non-diffuse, non-nuclear targets in other galaxies (e.g. ultra-luminous X-ray sources or supernovae ToO), please use the "Normal Galaxies" category.

R.A.

The J2000 right ascension of the source. The value can be entered in either sexagesimal format (HH MM SS.SS — hours, minutes, seconds, separated by spaces) or decimal degrees format (DDD.DDDDD). If you enter the value in sexagesimal format, it will be converted to decimal degrees format when you submit. Note: If you are proposing to observe a target whose position is unknown at the time of proposal submission (e.g., a moving object or a ToO out of a class/sample of potential targets), please specify "0.0" for both the R.A. and Dec. fields. Required.

Dec.

The J2000 declination of the source. The value can be entered in either sexagesimal format (±DD MM SS.S — an optional sign, either + or -, followed by the degrees, minutes, and seconds, separated by spaces) or decimal degrees format (±DD.DDDDD). If you enter the value in sexagesimal format, it will be converted to decimal degrees format when you submit. If you do not specify the sign, it is assumed to be positive. Note: If you are proposing to observe a target whose position is unknown at the time of proposal submission (e.g., a moving object or a ToO out of a class/sample of potential targets), please specify "0.0" for both the R.A. and Dec. fields. Required.

Total Observation Time

Required. The preferred exposure (i.e., total amount of good on-source data, after standard screening) in kiloseconds for observing the target. This is the total observation time for this target, so this is the sum of all pointings (or "visits") for one telescope. For both Regular and Large programs (refer to the Proposal Type field) the minimum and maximum times for one visit are 20 ksec and 500 ksec, respectively. Because of that, the maximum Total Observation Time you can request on a given Target form depends on the Number of Observations field. If you request a Total Observation Time greater than 500 ksec for a target, then you need to adjust the Number of Observations value for that target, taking into account that the maximum time allowed for each observation/pointing/visit is 500 ksec.

If uninterrupted visits longer than about 50 ksec are desired, be sure to respond accordingly to the Continuous Observation Required? field.

Number of Observations

Enter the number of desired observations (visits) of the target. The number must be between 1 (the default) and 100. For monitoring observations (number of observations greater than 1) this will give the number of parts into which the Total Observation Time will be evenly divided. If varied exposure times for the observations are desired, an additional target form is required for each variation. For the minimum and maximum visit times refer to the Total Observation Time description. Required.

Extended Source?

If the target is not a point source, mark this checkbox.

Source Extent

Specify the diameter (in arcminutes) of the circle that completely encloses the region of interest and is centered on the target's position. This is to assure that all of your targets will remain in the observing field in case the field center needs to be shifted. Round to the nearest hundredth of an arcminute, with a minimum of 0.01 arcminutes.

Tiling Observations?

If you wish to tile observations, mark this checkbox.

Tiling Pattern

Specify the pattern used to tile multiple observations together, if tiling observations are desired. The standard tiling pattern for NuSTAR survey observations is a half-shift, i.e. the 12-arcminute field of view is shifted by 6 arcminutes between positions. Required for tiling observations.

Tiling Remarks

Explain how the tiling should be done and/or why it is needed. Up to 200 characters. Required for tiling observations.

Stray Light Issue?

Specify the estimated impact of stray light for the observation. Required.
     No
     Potential Stray Light Issue

Extremely bright X-ray sources (>100 mCrab in the 3-79 keV band) within 1 to 5 degrees of a target can cause issues with elevated backgrounds due to stray light. An estimate of the stray light contamination for any target can be obtained using the NuSTAR Target Constraint Visibility Tool available on the NuSTAR SOC website. If a constraint check indicates a "Potential stray light issue," then proposers may also submit a request for a feasibility analysis to nustar-help@srl.caltech.edu at least 48 hours prior to the proposal deadline.

Stray Light Description

Describe the nature of the stray light issue. Required if Potential Stray Light Issue is selected for the previous field. If a constraint check indicates a "Potential stray light issue," then proposers may also submit a request for a feasibility analysis to nustar-help@srl.caltech.edu at least 48 hours prior to the proposal deadline. Information from the feasibility analysis can be included in this field.

Position Angle Dependent?

Specifying this option indicates that the observation is dependent on the position angle (PA) of the field of view. The position angle is defined as the angle East of North of the direction of the +DET1Y focal plane axis. At PA = 0 degrees the +DET1X axis points East and the position of the optical axis of the telescopes is approximately 1 arcminute NE of the center of the field of view. See the FAQ for more details.

A prediction of the PA for a target during the NuSTAR GO cycle can be obtained using the NuSTAR Target Constraint Visibility tool available on the NuSTAR SOC website.

Minimum PA

Specify the minimum NuSTAR position angle (PA) in degrees, if applicable. The proposer is responsible for verifying that the scientifically desirable PA is achievable within the operational constraints. Required for a PA-dependent observation.

Maximum PA

Specify the maximum NuSTAR position angle (PA) in degrees, if applicable. The proposer is responsible for verifying that the scientifically desirable PA is achievable within the operational constraints. Required for a PA-dependent observation.

Moving Object?

If the target's J2000 coordinate position is expected to move by more than 2 arcminutes over the course of the proposal cycle, mark this checkbox.

Moving Object Description

Provide details on the moving object, how it moves, and its observation. Up to 200 characters. Required for moving objects.

Target of Opportunity?

Indicate whether or not this object is a Target of Opportunity (ToO). A Target of Opportunity includes any proposal to observe a source under conditions that cannot be scheduled in advance (e.g., when non-periodic phenomena such as outbursts, state changes, novae, etc., occur). Please note the following:
  • ToOs must include a realistic estimate of the probability of triggering the ToO within the cycle in the Trigger Probability field.
  • ToOs must provide detailed trigger criteria and the preferred response window in the ToO Remarks field.
  • For ToO observations that are to be triggered from a class of objects: Complete one target form per trigger only, specifying "0.0" for both the R.A. and Dec. fields, and, if applicable, enter a list of potential target names in the ToO Remarks field. If the list of targets is too long to fit in the ToO Remarks field, include the complete list in the scientific justification instead and put a note in the ToO Remarks field to look there for the list.
  • For ToO observations that are to be triggered from a list of specific named objects and that cannot be treated as (part of) a "class of objects": Complete one target form per object and trigger criterion even if you ask for time for a subset only. For each ToO proposal the Maximum Total Time Requested for ToOs field must be provided. If you ask for time for a subset only, this number will be smaller than the automatically calculated summed exposure time for all target forms.
  • ToOs and non-ToO targets may not be combined in the same proposal. They should instead be submitted as separate proposals.
  • ToOs will not be accepted for either core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group or Type Ia events closer than the Virgo Cluster. See the NuSTAR section in the ROSES solicitation for more details.

ToO Trigger Probability

Give a realistic probability that the Target of Opportunity will be triggered during the observation cycle, based on the trigger criteria specified above. The probability must be greater than 0.00 and less than or equal to 1.00. Specify only for Targets of Opportunity.

ToO Initial Exposure

Specify the preferred initial exposure (i.e., total amount of good on-source data, after standard screening) in kiloseconds for observing the ToO. This should be less than or equal to the total observation time. The minimum time is 20 ksec, and the maximum time for a single target is 500 ksec or the total observation time for the target, whichever is lower. Specify only for Targets of Opportunity.

ToO Response Time

Specify the desired response time to observe this Target of Opportunity. Required for ToOs. The following are the possible options:
     Rapid (within 48 hours on a best-effort basis)
     Standard (within 1 week)
     Other (please provide details in Remarks)

ToO Remarks

State the criteria that should trigger observation of the target, the preferred response window, any follow-up strategy, and any other relevant information, where applicable. Up to 500 characters. Specify only for Targets of Opportunity. Please note the following:
  • A description of trigger criteria could say, e.g., something like "We want to catch the end of an outburst, so the observation should be triggered when the Swift BAT count rate falls to between 8-13 counts/sec after a burst."
  • Proposals with a preferred response time less than 48 hours will be evaluated based on the assumption that the minimum response time is 48 hours. A more rapid response time than 48 hours will be accommodated on a best-effort basis.
  • For ToO observations that are to be triggered from a class of objects: Complete one target form per trigger only, specifying "0.0" for both the R.A. and Dec. fields and providing a generic target name, and, if applicable, enter a list of potential target names in the ToO Remarks field. If the list of targets is too long to fit in the TOO Remarks field, include the list in the scientific justification instead and put a note in the ToO Remarks to look there for the list.
  • For ToO observations that are to be triggered from a list of specific named objects: Complete one target form per object and trigger criterion even if you ask for time for a subset only. For each ToO proposal the Maximum Total Time Requested for ToOs field must be provided. If you ask for time for a subset of ToOs, this number will be smaller than the automatically calculated summed exposure time for all target forms.
  • A single-trigger ToO may be proposed as part of a Large Program (e.g., where a long observation is needed after the initial trigger). Use the fields ToO Initial Exposure, Number of Observations, and Monitoring Criteria to define the program. The exposure of the initial trigger visit cannot be longer than 500 ksec and usually is much less than 500 ksec.

Monitoring Program?

Indicate whether the observation is to be made in more than one exposure (considered a "visit") at pre-determined intervals but with no fixed starting time. Use the Phase Dependent Observations and/or Time Constrained fields in this form if the starting time needs to be on a specific date/time during the proposal cycle. The time interval between successive visits must be ≥ 14 hours. If the time interval between two successive visits is ≤ 1 week, then the observations should also be designated as Time Constrained and a description provided in the Time Constraints Description field.

Monitoring Criteria

Describe the specifics of the monitoring program, such as how far apart in time the object should be observed and the number of times. Up to 400 characters. Required for monitoring programs.

Phase Dependent Observations?

Indicate that the observation is to be spread over a number of intervals with a fixed interval between them and a given reference date. The "Epoch" is the reference date given in MJD and the "Period" is the orbital period of the source in days. The "Minimum Phase" and "Maximum Phase" are the minimum and maximum orbital phases.

Phase Dependent Epoch

For phase dependent observations, the reference date in Modified Julian Date (MJD) number format. The observations will be made at an integral number of Periods from this date. Required for phase-dependent observations.

Phase Dependent Period

The orbital period of the source in days. Required for phase-dependent observations.

Minimum Phase

Minimum orbital phase to be observed. Values must be between 0 and 1. Required for phase-dependent observations.

Maximum Phase

Maximum orbital phase to be observed. Values must be between 0 and 1. Required for phase-dependent observations.

Phase Dependent Remarks

Provide any details related to the phase-dependent observation. Up to 400 characters. Required for phase-dependent observations.

Time Constrained?

If observation of the target should be done at a specific date/time (other than phase-dependent), mark this checkbox.

Time Constraints Description

Describe the time constraints of the observation. Up to 500 characters. Required for time constrained observations.

Coordinated Observation?

Indicate whether or not the observation(s) of the target should be linked with simultaneous observation(s) by another observatory/mission. The default is no.
     No
     Yes
     Preferred But Not Essential

Coordinating Observatory

Indicate the other observatory(ies)/mission(s) with which the observation(s) should be coordinated. If you desire to coordinate with more than than observatory/mission, please list all of them here, separated by a slash ("/"). Required for coordinated observation(s).

Coordination Interval

Specify the level of coordination desired with the other observatory(ies)/mission(s).
     Simultaneous (observations overlap as much as possible)
     Overlapping (observations overlap within one day)
     Contemporaneous">Contemporaneous (observations within one week)
     Other (please supply details in the Description field below)

Coordinated Observation Description

Give specifics regarding the coordination of the observation(s). Up to 400 characters. Required for coordinated observation(s).

Continuous Observation Required?

Indicate whether or not a continuous observation of the target is needed. The default is no. Note that all observations requiring less than or equal to 50 ksec exposure time are performed in a single visit. Observations of target requesting more than 50 ksec exposure time may be split into multiple visits during the observing cycle unless this field is marked as yes.

Continuous Observation Justification

Give reasoning and/or specifics for the continuous observation(s). Up to 200 characters. Required for continuous observation(s).

Expected Count Rate Above Background

Give the expected total band (3-79 keV) count rate of the source in counts/second for both modules in a 50% PSF extraction with no deadtime. Proposers may use WebPIMMS to estimate. Proposers who use XSPEC/WebSpec instead should remember to account for both telescopes/modules. The minimum is 0.001, and the maximum is 10000 counts/sec. Targets with estimated count rates outside this range should input the appropriate limit and note the actual estimated rate in the Other Remarks field. Required.

Other Remarks

Any other relevant comments you wish to make regarding the target and how it is to be observed. Up to 500 characters. Optional.
XMM-Newton Observation Parameters
If you are requesting an observation through the NuSTAR/XMM-Newton joint proposal program, you must fill in the amount of time (not including overhead) requested for XMM-Newton observation in kiloseconds. Additional information, such as the justification for the amount of time requested, must be provided in the scientific justification. Proposers should also fill out the Coordinated Observation? section with information about the coordination between NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, if desired.

XMM-Newton Time

Specify the total number of kiloseconds requested to observe this target by XMM-Newton. Requested exposure times may be either zero (if you do not need a particular target to be observed by XMM-Newton) or between 5 and 1500 kiloseconds, which is the total time allotment of the NuSTAR/XMM-Newton joint program. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/XMM-Newton joint program. If the field is visible, it is required. If you enter zero, then you do not need to enter any other fields in the XMM-Newton Observation Parameters section.

XMM-Newton Observation Remarks

Summarize any XMM-Newton observation details that may be relevant, such as instrument modes and scheduling constraints, if known. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/XMM-Newton joint program. Up to 1000 characters. If the field is visible and the XMM-Newton Time field for this target is non-zero, it is required.
Gehrels Swift Observation Parameters
If you are requesting an observation through the NuSTAR/Swift joint proposal program, you must fill in the total amount of time requested for the Swift observation(s) in kiloseconds. Additional information, such as the exposure time per visit and the cadence of the Swift observations should be provided in the Observation Remarks box. The justification for the amount of time requested must be provided in the scientific justification. Proposers should also fill out the Coordinated Observation? section with information about the coordination between NuSTAR and Swift, if desired.

Swift Time

Specify the total number of kiloseconds requested to observe this target by Swift. Requested exposure times may be either zero (if you do not need a particular target to be observed by Swift) or between 1 and 300 kiloseconds, which is the total time allotment of the NuSTAR/Swift joint program. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/Swift joint program. If the field is visible, it is required. If you enter zero, then you do not need to enter any other fields in the Gehrels Swift Observation Parameters section.

Swift Number of Observations

Enter the desired number of observations of the target, where an observation must be between 1 and 40 kiloseconds. For monitoring observations this will give the number of parts into which the Total Observation Time will be evenly divided, unless the Observation Remarks field below indicates otherwise. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/Swift joint program. If the field is visible and the Swift Time field for this target is non-zero, it is required.

Swift Estimated XRT Count Rate

Estimate the Swift XRT count rate in counts/sec typical of the source. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/Swift joint program. If the field is visible and the Swift Time field for this target is non-zero, it is required.

Swift XRT Mode

Select the Swift XRT mode from the list provided. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/Swift joint program. If the field is visible and the Swift Time field for this target is non-zero, it is required.
Photon Counting (PC) Mode
PC mode generates images with 2.5-s time resolution and is best suited to count rates below 0.5 cps. PC mode can be used for higher count rates, but the data will be piled up and will require special processing by the user. Choose PC mode if your science goal is to determine a good X-ray position. A two-dimensional image is generated. This mode allows the user to derive spectra at the CCD resolution.
Windowed Timing (WT) Mode
WT mode produces 1-D images with about 2-ms time resolution and is best suited to count rates over 1 cps. WT mode has higher background than PC mode. Choose WT mode if your science goal requires high-resolution timing. This mode allows the user to derive spectra at the CCD resolution.
Automatic (AUTO) Mode
Auto mode allows the instrument to choose the mode automatically, based on the count rate. Sometimes subject to "mode switching", which can result in a loss of useful data. Choose this mode when the X-ray count rate is unknown; the instrument will then select the mode automatically. Useful data results, unless the target is affected by scattered light from the bright earth.

Swift UVOT Filter Mode

Select the Swift UVOT filter mode from the list provided. In order to preserve UVOT filter wheel rotations, any filter mode other than "Filter of the Day" needs a strong justification. If you select "Custom," then you must specify the mode in the Remarks field. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/Swift joint program. If the field is visible and the Swift Time field for this target is non-zero, it is required.

Swift Observation Remarks

Summarize any Swift observation details that may be relevant, such as Swift ToO trigger criteria and probability, monitoring criteria, and any scheduling constraints, if known. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/Swift joint program. If that is the case and the Swift Time field for this target is non-zero, it is required. Up to 1000 characters.
NICER Observation Parameters
If you are requesting an observation through the NuSTAR/NICER joint proposal program, you must fill in the amount of time (not including overhead) requested for NICER observation in kiloseconds. Additional information, such as the justification for the amount of time requested, must be provided in the scientific justification. Proposers should also fill out the Coordinated Observation? section with information about the coordination between NuSTAR and NICER, if desired.

NICER Time

Specify the total number of kiloseconds requested to observe this target by NICER. Requested exposure times may be either zero (if you do not need a particular target to be observed by NICER) or between 1 and 250 kiloseconds, which is the total time allotment of the NuSTAR/NICER joint program. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/NICER joint program. If the field is visible, it is required. If you enter zero, then you do not need to enter any other fields in the NICER Observation Parameters section.

NICER Expected 0.3-10keV Count Rate

Specify the NICER expected total band (0.3-10 keV) count rate of the source in counts/second for all 52 active Focal Plane Modules (FPMs) with no deadtime. Proposers may use WebPIMMS to estimate NICER count rates, or WebSpec or XSPEC for more detailed simulations. Proposers should note that deadtime is important for very bright sources (a flux of 3 Crab, corresponding to about 60,000 NICER counts/s for 52 FPMs). Deadtime can be reduced by reading out a subset of the focal plane modules. Proposers who wish to observe very bright sources should consult with the NICER team on the observing strategy. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/NICER joint program. If the field is visible and the NICER Time field for this target is non-zero, it is required.

NICER Background Restriction

Specify whether the observation should occur during times of low particle background (which mostly affects the high-energy band above 2 keV) and/or optical loading (which mostly affects the low-energy band below 1 keV). This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/NICER joint program. If the field is visible and the NICER Time field for this target is non-zero, it is required.

Since there is a limited amount of low-background time available, observations which require restricted background are considered to be time-constrained.

     No
     Minimize Optical Loading
     Minimize Particle Background
     Minimize Optical Loading and Particle Background

NICER Observation Remarks

Summarize any NICER observation details that may be relevant, such as NICER ToO trigger criteria and probability, monitoring criteria, and any scheduling constraints, if known. This field should only be visible if you have specified you are applying to the NuSTAR/NICER joint program. If that is the case and the NICER Time field for this target is non-zero, it is required. Up to 1000 characters.