This Legacy journal article was published in Volume 1, May 1992, and has not been updated since publication. Please use the search facility above to find regularly-updated information about this topic elsewhere on the HEASARC site.

The Legacy Journal Club

Nick White


Every issue of Legacy highlights articles published elsewhere that are of particular interest to archival research in the high energy domain. This issue reviews an article by Bradt, Ohashi and Pounds which will appear in Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 30, September 1992.

X-ray astronomy from orbiting spacecraft is a relatively young activity with very few flight opportunities. There have been 25 X-ray missions launched over the past 25 yrs. Some, like Uhuru, are household names to astrophysicists while others are less well-known. Virtually every mission has contributed a new facet to the understanding of the X-ray sky. Bradt, Ohashi and Pounds (1992) have written an excellent review that summarizes the various X-ray missions that have been launched and their principle accomplishments. They also list the future missions that are expected to be launched over the coming decade.

All of these data sets are potentially of interest to HEASARC users. The HEASARC staff is currently looking into the status of each dataset and will work with the HEASARC users group to decide which datasets should be recovered. We reproduce here a summary of all the X-ray missions listed by Bradt, Ohashi and Pounds (Table 1), along with the references that describe each mission (Table 2). The users group or the HEASARC staff would be interested to hear about any of these datasets, especially those from the less well-known missions, which might have some feature of particular interest.

Table 1. Missions with Celestial X-ray Astronomy Instrumentsa

Mission Dates X-ray Instruments Featuresb Sciene (Spin/Point) (sample) OSO-3 1967-1968 H S Diffuse bkgnd. OSO-5 1969-1972 H S Diffuse bkgnd. Velaseries 1969-1979 M 4 satellites X-ray bursts Uhuru 1970-1973 M S, survey Binaries, clusters OSO-7 1971-1973 M, H S, survey 4-color catalog Copernicus(OAO-3) 1972-1981 M, C P, primarily UV SNR mapping ANS 1974-1976 L, M, C, B P X-ray burst Salyut-4 1974-1975 L, M P Cyg X-1, Her X-1 Ariel-5 1974-1980 M, B, Pol, SM, MC S, survey AGN, transients Apollo-Soyuz 1975 L, P SMC X-1 pulsing SAS-3 1975-1979 L, M, MC, C S, P Bursts, positions OSO-8 1975-1978 L, M, H, B, Pol S, low bkgnd. Fe line emission HEAO-1 1977-1979 L, M, H, MC S, P, Large area All-sky catalog Einstein 1978-1981 F, IPC, HRI, P, X-ray imaging Clusters, QSO's, B, SS, M, TG SNR Ariel-6 1979-1981 L, M, C Pri. Cosmic ray GX 1+4 Hakucho 1979-1984 L, M, MC, SM S Bursts Astron 1983-1988 M P Her X-1 low state Tenma 1983-1984 L, M, G, C, SM, MC S, Good spectral resol. Fe lines EXOSAT 1983-1986 L, M, G, F, TG P, 4-day orbit QPO's Ginga 1987-1991 M, SM P, Large area SN1987A, AGN Kvant/Mir 1987- M, H, CM, G Space Sta. MIR SN1987A Granat 1989 M, H, CM P, 4-day orbit Gal. Ctr. imaging ROSAT 1990- F, IPC, HRI P Soft survey Astro 1 (BBXRT) 1990 CF, SS P, 8-d mission Spectra cAstro-D 1993 CF, CCD, G P Spectros., Imaging cSpectrum-X 1994 F, CM, SM, Pol, P, 4-day orbit Spectros., Imaging SS, IPC, CCD c SAX 1994 CF, G(L,M), H, CM P, Equatorial orbit Spectra, Timing c XTE 1996 M, H, SM P, Rapid resp. to Timing, Spectra transients cAXAF 1998 F, TG, HRI, B, P, 0.5" ang. Imaging, Spectros. Cal, CCD resol. c XMM 1998 F, RG, CCD, P 24-h orbit, Imaging, Spectros. Opt/UV High throughput, Resol. 15"

a See Table 2 for references
b Low-earth orbits (period ~ 95 min) unless otherwise indicated
c Planned missions: Capabilities and dates may be uncertain

B:    Bragg Crystal Spectroscopy
Cal:  Microcalorimeter
C:    Collector (reflecting)
CF:   Conical approx. focusing
CM:   Coded-Mask imaging
F:    Focusing optics
G:    Gas Scintillation Prop. Ctr.
H:    High Energy (10-200 keV) crystal scintillator
HRI:  High resol. ImagerIPC: Imaging Prop. Ctr.
L:    Low energy (0.1 - 1 keV) prop ctr.
M:    Medium energy (1 - 20 keV) prop ctr.
MC:   Modulation Collimator
Pol:  Polarimetry
RG:   Reflection grating
SM:   Sky Monitor
SS:   Solid-state spectrometer
TG:   Transmission Gratings

P:    Pointed (= 3-axis stabilized)
S:    Spinners (instr. FOV may lie along spin axis)
Table 2: References for mission/instrument descriptions

ANS HXX	         Gursky, H., Schnopper, H., Parsignault, D. 1975. Ap. J. 
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ANS SXX	         Brinkman, A., Heise, J., de Jager, C. 1974. Philips Tech. 
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ANS SXX	         den Boggende, A., Lafleur, H. 1975. IEEE Trans. on Nucl. 
                 Sci. NS-22: 555-59
ApolloSoyuz      Stern, R., Bowyer, S. 1979. Ap. J. 230: 755-67
Ariel 5	         Smith, J. F., Courtier, G.M. 1976. Proc. Royal Soc. London A
                 350: 421-39
Ariel 5 SSI      Villa, G., Page, C., Turner, M., Cooke, B., Ricketts, M., 
                 Pounds, K. 1976. MNRAS 176:609-20
Ariel VI         Ricketts, M., Hall, A., Page, C., Whitford, C., Pounds, K. 
                 1982. MNRAS 201: 759-68
ART P/S	         Sunyaev, A., Babichenko, S., Goganov, Tabaldyev, S., 
                 Jambourenko, N. 1990b. Adv. Space Res. 10: (2)233-37
Astro-D	         Tanaka, Y.  1990.  Adv. space Res. 10:(2) 255-260.
Astron sat.      Babichenko, S., Burgin, M., Voinakov, S., Gernet, E., 
                 Goganov, D., et al. 1990. Cosmic Research 28: 
                 587-618; transl.28(4): 503--30
AXAF             Cannares, C. R. 1990. Adv. Space Res. 10: (2)261--72
AXAF	         Weisskopf, M.  1988.  Space Sci. Rev  47:47-93 
                 (See also papers in Astrophys. Lett. & Comm.
                  v. 26, #1)
BBXRT	         Serlemitsos, P., Marshall, F., Petre, R., Jahoda, K., 
                 Boldt, E., et al. 1991. in Frontiers of X-ray Astronomy. 
                 See Tanaka and Koyama 1991, pp.??-??
Copernicus       Bowles, J., Patrick, T., Sheather, P., Eiband, A. 1974. 
                 J. Phys. E (Sci. Instr.) 7: 183--91
Copernicus       Sanford, P. 1974. Proc. Royal Soc. London A 340: 411-22
                 CXB Persic, M., De Zotti, G., Boldt, E., Marshall, F., 
                 Danese, L., et al. 1989. Ap. J. Lett. 336: L47-50
Einstein         Giacconi, R., van Speybroeck, L., Holt, S., Clark, C., 
                 Novick, R. et al. 1979a. Ap. J. 230: 5-50
EUVE	         Malina, R., Bowyer, S., eds. 1991. Extreme Ultraviolet 
                 Astronomy. NY: Pergamon. 520 pp.
EXOSAT gspc      Peacock, A., Andresen, R., Manzo, G., Taylor, B., Villa, G., 
                 Re, S. et al. 1981. Space Sci. Rev. 30: 525-34
EXOSAT LE        deKorte, P., Bleeker, J., den Boggende, A., 
                 Branduardi-Raymont, G., Brinkman, A. et al. 1981.  Sp. Sci.
                 Rev.  30:495-511
EXOSAT ME        Turner, M., Smith, A., Zimmermann, H. 1981. Space Sci. 
                 Rev.30: 513-524
EXOSAT	         Taylor, B., Andresen, R., Peacock, A., Zobl, R. 1981. Space
                 Sci. Rev.  30:479-494
EXOSAT	         White, N., Peacock, A. 1988. Mem. d. Soc. Astron. ltal. 
Ginga ASM        Tsunemi, H., Kitamoto, S., Manabe, M., Miyamoto, S., 
                 Yamashita, K., Nakagawa, M. 1989a. Publ. Astron. Soc. 
                 Japan 41: 391~3
Ginga GBD        Murakami, T., Fujii, M., Hayashida, K.. Itoh, M., 
                 Nishimura, J., et al. 1989. Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 41: 405-26
Ginga LAC        Turner, M., Thomas, H., Patchett, B., Reading, D., 
                 Makishima, K. et al. 1989. Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 41: 345-72
Ginga	         Makino, F., the Astro-C team. 1987. Astrophys. Lett.
                 and Communication 25: 223-33
Granat	         Roques, J., Paul, J., Mandrou, P., Lebrun, F. 1990. Adv. 
                 Space Res. 10: (2)223-32
Hakucho	         Kondo, I., lnoue, H., Koyama, K., Makishima, K., Matsuoka, M.
                 et al. 1981. Space Sci. Instr. 5: 211-28
HEAO-1 A1        Friedman, H. 1979. Proc. Royal Soc. London A, 
HEAO-1 A2        Boldt, E. 1987. Phys. Reports 146: 215--57
HEAO-1 A2        Rothschild, R., Boldt, E., Holt, S., Serlemitsos, P., Garrmre,
                 G. et al. 1979. Space Sci. Instr. 4: 269-301
HEAO-1 A3        Gursky, H., Bradt, H., Doxsey, A., Schwartz, D., Schwarz, J. 
                 et al. 1978. Ap. J. 223: 973-8
HEAO-1 A4        Matteson, J. 1978. Proc. AIAA 16th Aerospace Sci. Mtg.
                 78-35. 0ffprint.
JET-X	         Pounds, K. 1990. In Observatories in Earth Orbit and Beyond.
                 See Kondo 1990, pp. 111-18
Kvant GSPC       Smith, A. 1985. Non-thermal and Very High Temperture 
                 Phenomena in X-ray Astronomy. ed. G. Perola and M. Salvati
                 p.271-77. Rome: Inst. Astron. Roma
Kvant HEXE       Reppin, C., Pietswch, W., Trumper, J., Kendziorra, E., 
                 Staubert, R. 1985. In Non-thermal and Very High Temperture 
                 Phenomena in X-ray Astronomy. ed. G. Perola and 
                 M.Salvati p.279-82. Rome: Inst. Astron. Roma
Kvant/Mir        Sunyaev, R., Churazov, E., Efremov, V., Gilfanov, M., 
                 Grebenev, S., et al. 1990a. Adv. Space Res. 10:(2)41-46
Kvant TTM        Brinkman A., Dam, J., Mels, W., Skinner, G., Willmore, A. 1985.
                 Proc. Workshop Non-thermal and Very High Temperature 
                 Phenomena in X-ray Astronomy. ed. G.Perola and M. Salvati 
                 p. 236-70. Rome: Inst. Astron. Roma
OSO-3	         Hudson, H., Peterson, L., Schwartz, D., 1969. Solar Phys. 
OSO-3 isotr      Schwartz, D. 1970. Ap.JI. 162: 439-44
OSO-3 spect      Schwartz, D., Hudson, H., Peterson, L. 1970. Ap. J. 162:
OSO-5 bkg        Dennis, B., Suri, A., Frost, K. 1973. Ap. J. 186: 
OSO-5 Instr      Frost, K., Dennis, B., Lencho, R. 1971. In New Techniques in
                 Space Astron. IAU Symposium  41, ed. F. Labuhn, R. Lust, 
                 pp. 185-91
OSO-7 cat        Markert, T., Winkler,P., Laird, F., Clark, G., Hearn, D. et 
                 al. 1979. Ap. J. Suppl. 39: 573-632
OSO-7	         Clark, G., Bradt, H., Lewin, W., Markert, T., Schnopper, H., 
                 Sprott, G. 1973. Ap. J. 179: 263-68
OSO-7	         Peterson, L. 1973. In X-ray and Gamma-ray Astronomy 
                 (lAU Symp.#55), ed. H. Bradt, R. Giacconi, p. 51-73
OSO-8 Instr.     Kestenbaum, H., Cohen, G., Long, K., Novick, R., Silver, E.
                 et al. 1976a. Ap. J.  210:805-809
OSO-8 lnstr      Dennis, B., Frost, K., Lencho, R., Orwig, L. 1977. Space
                 Sci. /nstr. 3: 325-42
OSO-8 lnstr.     Bunner,  A. 1978. Ap. J.  220: 261-71
OSO-8 Pol        Novick R. 1975. Space Sci. Rev. 18: 389-408
OSO-8	         Serlemitsos, P., Becker, R., Boldt, E, Holt, S., Pravdo, S. et 
                 al. 1976. X-ray Binaries NASA SP-389, ed. E. Boldt, 
                 Y. Kondo, p. 67-79, Washington DC: NASA
Pol OSO-8        Hughes, J., Long, K., Novick, R. 1984a. Ap. J. 280: 
ROSAT HRI        Zornbeck, M., Conroy, M., Harnden, F., Roy, A. Braeuninger, H. 
                 et al. 1990. In EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation 
                 for Astronomy. See Siegmund and Hudson 1990, pp.267-83
ROSAT	         Pfeffermann, E., Briel, U., Hippman, H., Kettenring, G., 
                 Metzner, G. et al. 1986. Proc. SPIE 733: 519
ROSAT	         Trumper, J. 1983. Adv. Space Res. 2 (4): 241-49
ROSAT 	         Trumper, J. 1991. Astron. Astrophys. 246: L1 (See also 
                 following papers 246: L2-50)
ROSAT WFC        Wells, A., Abbey, A., Barstow, M., Cole, R., Pye, J., et al. 
                 1990. In EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for 
                 Astronomy. See Siegmund and Hudson 1990, pp. 230- 43
Rosat	         Aschenbach, B. 1991. Rev. Modem Astron. 4   in press
Rosat  Desc      Rosat Sci. Data Ctr. 1991. ROSAT Mission Description,
                 Appendix F of NASA NRA 91- OSSA-3. Garching: MPE
RosatWFCMirrors	 Willingale, R. 1988.  Applied Optics 27:1423-29
Salyut-4	 Babichenko, S., Gogonov, D., Dereguzov E. Komyak, N., 
                 Kurt, V., et al. 1977. Space Sci. Instr. 3: 311--23
SAS-3 det	 Lewin, W., Li, F., Hoffman, J., Doty, J., Buff, J., et al 
                 1976a. MNRAS 177: 93P-1OOP
SAS-3Slat	 Buff, J., Jernigan, J., Laufer, B., Bradt, H., Clark, G. et 
                 al. 1977. Ap. J. 212: 768--73
SAX	         Butler, R., Scarsi, L. 1990. In Observatories in Earth 
                 Orbit and Beyond. See Kondo 1990, pp.  141-50
SMM	         Acton, L., Culhane, J.L., Gabriel, A., Bentley, R., Bowles, J.
                 1980. Solar Phys. 65: 53--71
SMM	         Orwig, L., Frost, K., Dennis, B. 1980. Solar Phys. 
                 65: 25-37
SMM	         Van Beek, H., Hoyng, P., Lafleur, B., Sinnett, G. 1980. 
                 Solar Phys. 65: 39-52
SODART	         Schnopper, H. 1990. In Observatories in Earth Orbit and 
                 Beyond. See Kondo 1990, pp. 119-28
Tenma            Tanaka, Y., Fujii, M., Inoue, H., Kawaii, N., Koyama, K.  
                 et al. 1984. Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan  36
Uhuru	         Giacconi, R., Kellogg, E., Gorenstein, P., Gursky, H., and 
                 Tananbaum, H. 1971a. Ap. J. Lett. 165: L27--35
WATCH	         Brandt, S., Lund, N., Rao, A. 1990. Adv. Space Res. 10:
WFC MPG	         Barstow, M., Sansom, A. 1990. In EUV, X-ray, and Gamma-Ray
                 Instrumentation for Astronomy. See Siegmund and Hudson 
                 1990, pp. 244-54
XMM      	 Barr, P., Bergeron, J., Bleeker, J., Ellwood, J., Gabriel, A.,
                 et al. 1988.  The High-Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy 
                 Mission, SP-1097. Paris: ESA
XMM            	 Peacock, A., Taylor, B., Ellwood, J. 1990. Adv. Space Res.
                 10:(2) 273-85
XTE              Bradt, H., Levine, A., Swank, J., Rothschild, R., 
                 Jernigan, J., et al.  1990. In Observatories in Earth Orbit
                 and Beyond. See Kondo 1990, pp. 89-110

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