Appendix C: Adding Models to XSPEC

XSPEC includes a large collection of standard models that can be fit to data. However, sometimes these are not enough and a new model might be required. In order of increasing complexity the ways to do this are:

- use the mdefine command;
- create a table model;
- load a model function created by someone else;
- create and load your own model function.

**Table models**

A very simple way of fitting with user-defined models is available for a particular class of models. These are models that can be defined by a grid of spectra, with the elements of the grid covering the range of values of the parameters of the model. For instance, for a one-parameter model, a set of model spectra can be tabulated for different values of the parameter (P1, P2, P3, etc.) The correct model spectrum for a value P is calculated by interpolation on the grid. The generalization to more parameters works in the obvious way. The table is specified in the model command by the special strings atable, mtable, or etable with the filename following in brackets - see the entries in the models section of the manual. Any number of table model components can be used simultaneously.

Table model components can be much slower than most standard models if there are significant numbers of parameters. The memory requirements increase as where n is the number of parameters in the model. A table model with more than 3 or 4 fitting parameters is not recommended. Additionally, the interpolation is linear, which implies that the second derivatives used by the default Levenberg-Marquadt algorithm may not be accurate. If the fit does not work well it may be worth trying the migrad (minuit library) algorithm which makes no assumptions about the second derivative.

As with standard models, the spectra should be in terms of
flux-per-bin and not flux-per-keV. Any set of energy bins can be used,
and XSPEC will interpolate the model spectra onto the appropriate
energy bins for the detectors in use. It is therefore a good idea to
choose energy bins such that the spectrum is well-sampled over the
range of interest. The file structure for these models is a FITS
format described at :
`http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/heasarc/ofwg/docs/general/ogip_92_009/ogip_92_009.html`

or:
`ftp://legacy.gsfc.nasa.gov/fits_info/fits_formats/docs/general/ogip_92_009`

The HEASP C++ library and Python module available in HEAsoft can be
used to make table model files. The documentation at:
`http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/software/lheasoft/headas/heasp/heasp_guide.html`

includes examples for both C++ and Python.

**Loading a new model function**

New model functions may be downloaded from the XSPEC additional models
webpage at:
`http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/xanadu/xspec/newmodels.html`

or acquired privately. They are added using two commands:

- initpackage, which prepares and compiles a library module containing them
- lmod, which actually loads them into the program.

The lmod command requires write-access to the
particular directory specified. This is because lmod uses the Tcl
**make package** and **package require** mechanisms for automatic
library loads and these require Tcl write an index file
(`pkgIndex.tcl`) to the directory. Consequently we recommend
using the Tcl **load** command instead of lmod if the library
is being used by a number of users on a local network. Such
a library can be loaded automatically by placing the command in the
`global_customize.tcl` script (see the section ``Customizing
XSPEC'' in the Overview (Chapter 3)).

**Writing a new model function**

A model function is a subroutine that calculates the model spectrum given an input array of energy bins and an array of parameter values. The input array of energy bins gives the boundaries of the energy bins and hence has one more entry than the output flux arrays. The energy bins are assumed to be contiguous and will be determined by the response matrix in use. The subroutine should thus make no assumptions about the energy range and bin sizes. The output flux array for an additive model should be in terms of photons/cm/s (not photons/cm/s/keV) i.e. it is the model spectrum integrated over the energy bin. The output array for a multiplicative model is the multiplicative factor for that bin. Convolution models are operators on the output from additive or multiplicative models. Model subroutines can be written in Fortran, either in single or double precision, in C++ using either C++-style arguments or C style arguments, and in C.

**The model.dat entry**

In addition to the subroutine, XSPEC requires a text file describing
the model and its parameters. The standard models are specified in the
`model.dat` file so we usually refer to this text file by that name. A
sample `model.dat` entry has the following form:

modelentry 4 0. 1.e20 modelfunc add 0 0 lowT keV 0.1 0.0808 0.0808 79.9 79.9 0.001 highT keV 4. 0.0808 0.0808 79.9 79.9 0.001 Abundanc " " 1. 0. 0. 5. 5. 0.01 *redshift " " 0.0

The first line for each model gives the model name, the number of parameters, the low and high energies for which the model is valid, the name of the subroutine to be called and the type of model (add, mul, mix, or con, or acn). The final two arguments are flags: the first should be set to 1 if model variances are calculated by modelfunc and the second should be set to 1 if the model should be forced to perform a calculation for each spectrum. This final flag is necessary because if multiple spectra have the same energy bins, the default behavior is to perform the model calculation for just one spectrum and copy the results for each of the others. However, if a model depends on information about the spectrum in addition to its energy ranges, it must be forced to perform a calculation for each spectrum.

The remaining lines in the text file specify each parameter in the model. For regular model parameters the first two fields are the parameter name followed by an optional units label. If there is no units label, then there must be a quoted blank (`` '') placeholder. The remaining 6 numerical entries are the default parameter value, hard min, soft min, soft max, hard max, and fit delta, which are described in the newpar command section.

There are three special types of parameter which can be used. If the name of the parameter is prefixed with a ``*'' the parameter is a ``scale'' parameter and cannot be made variable or linked to any kind of parameter other than another scale parameter. Since the parameter value can never vary only the initial value need be given. If the name of the parameter is prefixed with a ``$'' the parameter is a ``switch'' parameter which is not used directly as part of the calculation, but switches the model component function's mode of operation (i.e. calculate or interpolate). Switch parameters only have 2 fields: the parameter name and an integer value.

Finally, if a P is added at the end of the line for a parameter then the parameter is defined to be periodic. During a fit, a periodic parameter will not be pegged if it tries to exceed its hard limits. Instead it will be assigned a value within its limits: f(max + delta) = f(min + delta), f(min-delta) = f(max-delta). The soft min and max settings are irrelevant for period parameters and will be ignored.

**The model subroutine function**

The following table lists the function arguments required for the
different language options. The second entry in the first column
is the way the function name should be included in the
`model.dat` entry.

Call Type and Name | Arguments and Type | Meaning |

Single | real*4 ear(0:ne) | Energy array |

precision | integer ne | Size of flux array |

fortran | real param(*) | Parameter values. (Dimension must be specified inside the function) |

integer ifl | The spectrum number being calculated | |

funcName | real photar(ne) | Output flux array |

real photer(ne) | Output flux error array (optional) | |

Double | double precision ear(0:ne) | As above |

precision | integer ne | As above |

fortran | double precision param(*) | As above |

integer ifl | As above | |

F_funcName | double precision photar(ne) | As above |

double precision photer(ne) | As above | |

C/C++ | const Real* energy | Energy array (size Nflux+1) |

C-style | int Nflux | Size of flux array |

const Real* parameter | Parameter values | |

int spectrum | Spectrum number of model component being calculated | |

c_funcName | Real* flux | Output flux array |

Real* fluxError | Output flux error array (optional) | |

const char* init | Initialization string (see below) | |

C++ | const RealArray& energy | Energy array |

C++ style | const RealArray& parameter | Parameter values |

int spectrum | Spectrum number of model component being calculated | |

RealArray& flux | Output flux array | |

C_funcName | RealArray& fluxError | Output flux error array (optional) |

const string& init | Initialization string (see below) |

For example, a model component in double precision Fortran is specified by:

modelentry 5 0. 1.e20 F_funcName add 0 0XSPEC then picks out the right function definition, and calls the Fortran function

Example C/C++ function definitions:

/* C style */ extern ``C'' void modelfunc(const Real* energy, int Nflux, const Real* parameter, int spectrum, Real* flux, Real* fluxError, const char* init) { /* Model code: Do not allocate memory for flux and fluxError arrays. XSPEC's C-function wrapper will allocate arrays prior to calling the function (and will free them afterwards). */ } // C++ style extern ``C'' void modelfunc(const RealArray& energy, const RealArray& parameter, int spectrum, RealArray& flux, RealArray& fluxError, const string& init) { // Model code: Should resize flux RealArray to energy.size()-1. // Do the same for fluxError array if calculating errors, otherwise // leave it at size 0. }

Note on type definitions for (C and C++): XSPEC provides a typedef for
Real, in the `xsTypes.h` header file. The distributed code has

typedef double Real;i.e. all calculations are performed in double precision. This is used for C models and C++ models with C-style arguments.

The type RealArray is a dynamic (resizeable) array of Real. XSPEC uses the std::valarray template class to implement RealArray. The internal details of XSPEC require that the RealArray typedef supports vectorized assignments and mathematical operations, and indirect addressing (see C++ documentation for details). However, we do not recommend using specific features of the std::valarray class, such as array slicing, in case the typedef is changed in future.

The input energies are set by the response matrices of the detectors in use. IFL is an integer which specifies to which response (and therefore which spectrum) these energies correspond. It exists to allow multi-dimensional models where the function might also depend on e.g. pulse-phase in a variable source. The output flux array should not be assumed to have any particular values on input. It is assumed to contain previously calculated values only by convolution/pileup models, which have the nature of operators. The output flux error array allows the function to return model variances.

The C and C++ call types allow one extra argument, which is a character string that can be appended to the top line of the model component description. This string is read on initialization and available to the model during execution. An example of its use might be the name of a file with specific data used in the model calculation: this allows different models to be implemented the same way except for different input data by specifying different names and input strings.

**Function utility routines**

There are a number of internal XSPEC routines which may be useful for
local models written in either C++ or Fortran. These are defined in
`FunctionUtility.h` and `xsFortran.cxx`, respectively, in the directory
`Xspec/src/XSFunctions/Utilities`. Documentation is available in the file
`XSUtil_guide.pdf` in `Xspec/src/help`.

These functions allow the model to find out the Solar abundances in use, get any information defined using the xset command, find the cosmological parameters currently set, get the contents of the XFLT#### keywords in the spectrum files, and load information into an internal database which can be accessed using tclout.

There are also C++ classes and associated methods for equilibrium and
non-equilibrium collisional plasmas, photo-electric opacity from
neutral and ionized materials, and Compton scattering. Descriptions of
these can be found in `XSFunctions_guide.pdf` in `Xspec/src/help`.

**Multi-dimensional models**

Typically, an XSPEC model depends only on the energy (and the model parameters) but more complicated models are sometimes required. The model might depend on energy and, for a variable source, the time at which the spectrum was obtained or, for an extended source, its spatial position. The extra information about the spectrum must be stored in the XFLT#### keywords in the spectrum files. For instance, if the model has a dependence on time then for one spectrum XFLT0001 could be set to ``start: 1345.54'' and XFLT0002 to ``end: 1356.43'' and another have XFLT0001 set to ``start: 1356.43'' and XFLT0002 to ``end: 1368.21''. An example C++ routine might then include the code

#include <XSUtil/FunctionUtils/FunctionUtility.h> ... extern ``C'' void mymodel(const RealArray& energyArray, const RealArray& params, int spectrum, RealArray& flux, RealArray& fluxErr, const string& initString) ... Real tstart = FunctionUtility::getXFLT(spectrum,``start''); Real tend = FunctionUtility::getXFLT(spectrum,``end''); ...

**Third-Party Libraries In Local Models Build**

The Makefile that initpackage creates for building your local models library is based on the template file

heasoft-[ver]/Xspec/src/tools/initpackage/xspackage.tmplIf you need to add a path to a third-party library's header files, add:

-I/path/to/your/3rdParty/library/includeto the HD_CXXFLAGS setting. Then type

heasoft-[ver]/Xspec/src/tools/initpackagedirectory.

To make sure the linker pulls in the library on Mac OS X further edit
the `xspackage.tmpl` file by adding a ``-l'' flag for the
library (e.g. -lgsl) in the HD_SHLIB_LIBS settings. Then reinstall
`xspackage.tmpl` as mentioned above. On Linux/Unix the XSPEC
executable itself should be relinked with the new library
included. So, edit the file

heasoft-[ver]/Xspec/src/main/Makefileby adding a ``-l'' flag for the library to the HD_CXXLIBS setting. Then from the same directory do:

rm xspec hmake local hmake publish hmake installAfter these modifications, you should be able to use initpackage and lmod in the normal way to build and load your local models library.

**Writing new mixing models**

Mixing models are fundamentally different from the other kinds of models since they apply a transformation to a set of modeled fluxes (as enumerated by the spectra in the fit), rather than modify the flux designed to fit a single spectrum. The need to store temporary results, as well as the requirements of the model calculation, lead to many workspace arrays: further, the transformations applied are often fixed during a fit, or can be split to avoid redundant calculations into parts that are fixed and parts that change during iteration in order. XSPEC's internal organization (data structures) can be mapped straightforwardly to the requirements of these models so to implement them efficiently and handle memory allocation, we recommend that mixing models be written in C++ or C. At present only a C++ implementation is available. Users considering adding new mixing model types should contact the developers of XSPEC at xspec12@athena.gsfc.nasa.gov.